A report on Malnutrition

A malnourished child in an MSF treatment tent in Dolo Ado.
Child in the United States with signs of kwashiorkor, a dietary protein deficiency.
Child of a sharecropper with malnutrition and rickets, 1935
Union Army soldier on his release from Confederate prison, around 1865
A child with extreme malnutrition
Chart showing a trend between obesity and diabetes over the years.
Irrigation canals have opened dry desert areas of Egypt to agriculture.
A soup kitchen in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1931.
A malnourished Afghan child being treated by a medical team.
A Somali boy receiving treatment for malnourishment at a health facility.
Baby suffering from protein malnutrition due to insufficient amount of nutrients
Examples of commercially available oral rehydration salts (Nepal on left, Peru on right).
Deaths from nutritional deficiencies per million persons in 2012
Malnourished children in Niger, during the 2005 famine.
Migrant Mother by Dorothea Lange (1936).
Starved girl
Essential nutrients are one of the main requirements of elderly care.
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020. 
< 2.5%
< 5.0%
5.0–14.9%
15.0–24.9%
25.0–34.9%
> 35.0%
No data

Individual gets too few or too many nutrients, resulting in health problems.

- Malnutrition
A malnourished child in an MSF treatment tent in Dolo Ado.

70 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A woman selling produce at a market in Lilongwe, Malawi

Food security

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Measure of the availability of food and individuals' ability to access it.

Measure of the availability of food and individuals' ability to access it.

A woman selling produce at a market in Lilongwe, Malawi
A farmer holding up onions he has grown on his farm near Gilgil, Kenya
Number of people affected by undernourishment in 2010–12 (by region, in millions)
Number of severely food insecure people by region (2014-2018)
Infographic about food insecurity in the US
Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. Food per person increased since 1961. Data source: Food and Agriculture Organization.
Growth of World Food Supply (caloric base) per capita
Goats are an important part of the solution to global food security because they are fairly low-maintenance and easy to raise and farm.
Children with symptoms of low calorie and protein intake and a nurse attendant at a Nigerian orphanage in the late 1960s
Irrigation canals have opened dry desert areas of Egypt to agriculture.
One of the major environmental problems associated with urban sprawl is land loss
Wood chips and other green wastes are inexpensive resources that enhance soil fertility.
A family planning placard in Ethiopia. It shows some negative effects of having too many children.
World population supported with and without synthetic nitrogen fertilizers.
Bengali famine, 1943. The Japanese conquest of Burma cut off India's main supply of rice imports.
A Kenyan woman farmer at work in the Mount Kenya region
The popularity of the use of genetically modified crops throughout the world.
The image shows a protest taking place in Dublin, Ireland against the use of genetically modified crops during the March Against Monsanto event.
A liquid manure spreader is used to increase agricultural productivity.
Fight Hunger: Walk the World campaign is a United Nations World Food Programme initiative.
A farmer on the outskirts of Lilongwe (Malawi) prepares a field for planting.

The issue of food inaccessibility is magnified by chronic child malnutrition, as well as obesity in children, adolescents, and families.

A map of World Bank high-income economies in 2019; high-income economies are indicated in blue, while former high-income economies are shown in teal.

Developing country

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Not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. The term low and middle-income country (LMIC) is often used interchangeably but refers only to the economy of the countries. The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on gross national income per capita: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. Least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states are all sub-groupings of developing countries. Countries on the other end of the spectrum are usually referred to as high-income countries or developed countries.

Not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category. The term low and middle-income country (LMIC) is often used interchangeably but refers only to the economy of the countries. The World Bank classifies the world's economies into four groups, based on gross national income per capita: high, upper-middle, lower-middle, and low income countries. Least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states are all sub-groupings of developing countries. Countries on the other end of the spectrum are usually referred to as high-income countries or developed countries.

A map of World Bank high-income economies in 2019; high-income economies are indicated in blue, while former high-income economies are shown in teal.
Newly industrialized countries.
Countries by 2019 GDP (nominal) per capita
World regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
A formation of human chain at India Gate by the women from different walks of life at the launch of a National Campaign on prevention of violence against women, in New Delhi on 2 October 2009
Percentage of women older than 14 who have experienced violence by an intimate partner
Solar cookers use sunlight as energy source for outdoor cooking.
Factory in China at Yangtze River causing air pollution.
Plastic pollution at a beach near Accra, Ghana
Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2020 compared to the 1951–1980 average. Source: NASA.
Map of countries and territories by fertility rate as of 2020
Developed countries
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Data unavailable
The latest classifications sorted by the IMF and the UN

Undernutrition is more common in developing countries.

An electron micrograph of rotavirus, the cause of nearly 40% of hospitalizations from diarrhea in children under five

Diarrhea

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Condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day.

Condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day.

An electron micrograph of rotavirus, the cause of nearly 40% of hospitalizations from diarrhea in children under five
Bristol stool chart
Diagram of the human gastrointestinal tract
Poverty often leads to unhygienic living conditions, as in this community in the Indian Himalayas. Such conditions promote contraction of diarrheal diseases, as a result of poor sanitation and hygiene.
A person consuming oral rehydration solution
Deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases per million persons in 2012
Disability-adjusted life year for diarrhea per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 
no data
< 500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–3000
3000–3500
3500–4000
4000–4500
4500–5000
5000–6000
> 6000

Frequent episodes of diarrhea are also a common cause of malnutrition and the most common cause in those younger than five years of age.

A woman, a man and a child, all three dead from starvation due to the Russian famine of 1921–1922

Famine

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Widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, natural disasters, crop failure, population imbalance, widespread poverty, an economic catastrophe or government policies.

Widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, natural disasters, crop failure, population imbalance, widespread poverty, an economic catastrophe or government policies.

A woman, a man and a child, all three dead from starvation due to the Russian famine of 1921–1922
Skibbereen, Ireland during the Great Famine, 1847 illustration by James Mahony for the Illustrated London News
People waiting for famine relief in Bangalore, India (from the Illustrated London News, 1877)
294x294px
WFP's HungerMap LIVE monitors food security and predicts the status of crisis-hit areas where data is limited, World Food Programme, 2021
A 1906 Punch cartoon depicting King Leopold II as a snake entangling a Congolese man
Malnourished children in Niger, during the 2005 famine
A girl during the Nigerian Civil War of the late 1960s. Pictures of the famine caused by Nigerian blockade garnered sympathy for the Biafrans worldwide.
Laure Souley holds her three-year-old daughter and an infant son at a MSF aide center during the 2005 famine, Maradi Niger
Famine-affected areas in the western Sahel belt during the 2012 drought.
Chinese officials engaged in famine relief, 19th-century engraving
Skulls of Khmer Rouge murder victims at Choeung Ek
Victims of the Great Famine of 1876–78 in India during British rule, pictured in 1877.
A starving woman and child during the Assyrian genocide. Ottoman Empire, 1915
An engraving from Goya's Disasters of War, showing starving women, doubtless inspired by the terrible famine that struck Madrid in 1811–1812.
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Swedish famine of 1867–1869
Depiction of victims of the Great Famine in Ireland, 1845–1849
Victims of the Russian famine of 1921–22 during the Russian Civil War
Malnourished child during Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca (Great Drought).
Lake Chad in a 2001 satellite image, with the actual lake in blue. The lake has shrunk by 95% since the 1960s.
A victim of starvation in besieged Leningrad suffering from dystrophia in 1941.
A child suffering extreme starvation in India, 1972
The government's forced collectivization of agriculture was one of the main causes of the Soviet famine of 1932–1933.
Famines since 1850 by political regime
A starving child during the 1869 famine in Algeria.
Norman Borlaug, father of the Green Revolution, is often credited with saving over a billion people worldwide from starvation.
A Somali boy receiving treatment for malnutrition at a health facility in Hilaweyn during the drought of 2011.
Freshly-dug graves for child victims of the 2011 East Africa drought, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya

This phenomenon is usually accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation, epidemic, and increased mortality.

"Miss A—" depicted in 1866 and in 1870 after treatment. She was one of the earliest case studies of anorexia. From the published medical papers of William Gull.

Anorexia nervosa

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Eating disorder characterized by low weight, food restriction, body image disturbance, fear of gaining weight, and an overpowering desire to be thin.

Eating disorder characterized by low weight, food restriction, body image disturbance, fear of gaining weight, and an overpowering desire to be thin.

"Miss A—" depicted in 1866 and in 1870 after treatment. She was one of the earliest case studies of anorexia. From the published medical papers of William Gull.
The back of a person with anorexia
Dysregulation of the serotonin pathways has been implicated in the cause and mechanism of anorexia.
Genetic correlations of anorexia with psychiatric and metabolic traits
Deaths due to eating disorders per million persons in 2012
Two images of an anorexic woman published in 1900 in "Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière". The case was titled "Un cas d'anorexie hysterique" (A case of hysteric anorexia).

Anorexia nervosa, and the associated malnutrition that results from self-imposed starvation, can cause complications in every major organ system in the body.

Starving Russian girl during the Russian famine of 1921–1922

Starvation

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Severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

Severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.

Starving Russian girl during the Russian famine of 1921–1922
A girl during the Nigerian Civil War of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition
Starved Vietnamese man, who was deprived of food in a Viet Cong prison camp. Note the rib cage showing, a clear sign of starvation.
The starving Livilla refusing food.
From a drawing by André Castagne.
Buchenwald inmates, 16 April 1945, when camp was liberated
Maximilian Kolbe, on a West German postage stamp, marked Auschwitz

It is the most extreme form of malnutrition.

Food and Agriculture Organization

4 links

100.

100.

FAO Commemorative 1998 30th Anniv MM Programme Bronze Obverse
Lester Bowles Pearson presiding at a plenary session of the founding conference of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. October 1945.
FAO headquarters in Rome
Liaison Office for North America in Washington, DC
The Food Price Index (FAO) 1990–2012
FAO fisheries expert, Ceylon, 1950s

The main impetus for the conference was British-born Australian economist Frank L. McDougall, who since 1935 had advocated for an international forum to address hunger and malnutrition.

Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2021 compared to the 1956–1976 average

Climate change

4 links

Contemporary climate change includes both global warming and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns.

Contemporary climate change includes both global warming and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns.

Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2021 compared to the 1956–1976 average
Change in average surface air temperature since the industrial revolution, plus drivers for that change. Human activity has caused increased temperatures, with natural forces adding some variability.
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observed data is in red.
Drivers of climate change from 1850–1900 to 2010–2019. There was no significant contribution from internal variability or solar and volcanic drivers.
concentrations over the last 800,000 years as measured from ice cores (blue/green) and directly (black)
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
The rate of global tree cover loss has approximately doubled since 2001, to an annual loss approaching an area the size of Italy.
Sea ice reflects 50% to 70% of incoming solar radiation while the dark ocean surface only reflects 6%, so melting sea ice is a self-reinforcing feedback.
Projected global surface temperature changes relative to 1850–1900, based on CMIP6 multi-model mean changes.
The sixth IPCC Assessment Report projects changes in average soil moisture that can disrupt agriculture and ecosystems. A reduction in soil moisture by one standard deviation means that average soil moisture will approximately match the ninth driest year between 1850 and 1900 at that location.
Historical sea level reconstruction and projections up to 2100 published in 2017 by the U.S. Global Change Research Program
The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (2021) projects that extreme weather will be progressively more common as the Earth warms.
Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions. If all countries achieve their current Paris Agreement pledges, average warming by 2100 would still significantly exceed the maximum 2 °C target set by the Agreement.
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Economic sectors with more greenhouse gas contributions have a greater stake in climate change policies.
Most emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
Since 2000, rising emissions in China and the rest of world have surpassed the output of the United States and Europe.
Per person, the United States generates at a far faster rate than other primary regions.
Academic studies of scientific consensus reflect that the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science.
Data has been cherry picked from short periods to falsely assert that global temperatures are not rising. Blue trendlines show short periods that mask longer-term warming trends (red trendlines). Blue dots show the so-called global warming hiatus.
The 2017 People's Climate March took place in hundreds of locations. Shown: the Washington, D.C. march, protesting policies of then-U.S. President Trump.
Tyndall's ratio spectrophotometer (drawing from 1861) measured how much infrared radiation was absorbed and emitted by various gases filling its central tube.
alt=Underwater photograph of branching coral that is bleached white|Ecological collapse. Bleaching has damaged the Great Barrier Reef and threatens reefs worldwide.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/coral-reef-risk-outlook/|title=Coral Reef Risk Outlook|access-date=4 April 2020|publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|quote=At present, local human activities, coupled with past thermal stress, threaten an estimated 75 percent of the world's reefs. By 2030, estimates predict more than 90% of the world's reefs will be threatened by local human activities, warming, and acidification, with nearly 60% facing high, very high, or critical threat levels.}}</ref>
alt=Photograph of evening in a valley settlement. The skyline in the hills beyond is lit up red from the fires.|Extreme weather. Drought and high temperatures worsened the 2020 bushfires in Australia.<ref>{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 7 January|2020}}.</ref>
alt=The green landscape is interrupted by a huge muddy scar where the ground has subsided.|Arctic warming. Permafrost thaws undermine infrastructure and release methane, a greenhouse gas.
alt=An emaciated polar bear stands atop the remains of a melting ice floe.|Habitat destruction. Many arctic animals rely on sea ice, which has been disappearing in a warming Arctic.<ref>{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch28|2014|p=1596|ps=: "Within 50 to 70 years, loss of hunting habitats may lead to elimination of polar bears from seasonally ice-covered areas, where two-thirds of their world population currently live."}}</ref>
alt=Photograph of a large area of forest. The green trees are interspersed with large patches of damaged or dead trees turning purple-brown and light red.|Pest propagation. Mild winters allow more pine beetles to survive to kill large swaths of forest.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.nps.gov/romo/learn/nature/climatechange.htm|title=What a changing climate means for Rocky Mountain National Park|publisher=National Park Service|access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref>
Environmental migration. Sparser rainfall leads to desertification that harms agriculture and can displace populations. Shown: Telly, Mali (2008).<ref>{{harvnb|Serdeczny|Adams|Baarsch|Coumou|2016}}.</ref>
Agricultural changes. Droughts, rising temperatures, and extreme weather negatively impact agriculture. Shown: Texas, US (2013).<ref>{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Ch5|2019|pp=439, 464}}.</ref>
Tidal flooding. Sea-level rise increases flooding in low-lying coastal regions. Shown: Venice, Italy (2004).<ref name="NOAAnuisance">{{cite web|url=http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/nuisance-flooding.html |title=What is nuisance flooding? |author=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |access-date=April 8, 2020}}</ref>
Storm intensification. Bangladesh after Cyclone Sidr (2007) is an example of catastrophic flooding from increased rainfall.<ref>{{harvnb|Kabir|Khan|Ball|Caldwell|2016}}.</ref>
Heat wave intensification. Events like the June 2019 European heat wave are becoming more common.<ref>{{harvnb|Van Oldenborgh|Philip|Kew|Vautard|2019}}.</ref>

Extreme weather leads to injury and loss of life, and crop failures to undernutrition.

World map of stunted growth for children in different countries (percentage moderate and severe stunting, 1995-2007)

Stunted growth

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Reduced growth rate in human development.

Reduced growth rate in human development.

World map of stunted growth for children in different countries (percentage moderate and severe stunting, 1995-2007)
Children living in unsanitary conditions in an urban slum in India, at risk of diarrhea and stunted growth
Child next to open sewer in slum in Kampala, Uganda, at risk of diarrhea and stunted growth

It is a primary manifestation of malnutrition (or more precisely undernutrition) and recurrent infections, such as diarrhea and helminthiasis, in early childhood and even before birth, due to malnutrition during fetal development brought on by a malnourished mother.

Malnutrition due to soil transmitted helminth infections in school-age children in Guimaras Island, Philippines

Undernutrition in children

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Undernutrition in children, occurs when children do not consume enough calories, protein, or micronutrients to maintain good health.

Undernutrition in children, occurs when children do not consume enough calories, protein, or micronutrients to maintain good health.

Malnutrition due to soil transmitted helminth infections in school-age children in Guimaras Island, Philippines
Starved child in Somalia
A child's upper arm is measured to detect malnutrition in the village of Baggad, in Madhya Pradesh's Dhar district (India)
A child suffering from Kwashiorkor caused by inadequate dietary protein intake, show signs of thinning hair or “Flag Sign”, edema, inadequate growth, and weight loss.
Poor sanitary conditions in the environment that can contribute to malnutrition and disease in children (Kibera, Kenya)
Getting support to children with malnutrition in Kenya

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that malnutrition accounts for 54 percent of child mortality worldwide, which is about 1 million children.