Malware

malicious softwaremalicious codemaliciousgraywarebadwaremalicious programmalicious computer programsecurity defectsoftwareAnti Malware
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network (by contrast, software that causes unintentional harm due to some deficiency is typically described as a software bug).wikipedia
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Computer worm

wormswormComputer worms
A wide variety of types of malware exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, and scareware.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.

Trojan horse (computing)

Trojan horsetrojanTrojan horses
A wide variety of types of malware exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, and scareware.
In computing, a Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malware which misleads users of its true intent.

Computer virus

virusvirusescomputer viruses
A wide variety of types of malware exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, and scareware.
The term "virus" is also misused by extension to refer to other types of malware.

Scareware

A wide variety of types of malware exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, and scareware.
Scareware is a form of malware which uses social engineering to cause shock, anxiety, or the perception of a threat in order to manipulate users into buying unwanted software.

Sony BMG copy protection rootkit scandal

2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandalSony BMG CD copy protection scandalSony rootkit
For example, at one point Sony music Compact discs silently installed a rootkit on purchasers' computers with the intention of preventing illicit copying, but which also reported on users' listening habits, and unintentionally created extra security vulnerabilities.
Neither program could easily be uninstalled, and they created vulnerabilities that were exploited by unrelated malware.

Spyware

anti-spywareantispywareSpyware removal software
A wide variety of types of malware exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, and scareware.
Users assume in those situations that the performance issues relate to faulty hardware, Windows installation problems, or another malware infection.

Adware

ad-supportedad-sponsoredAd-supported software
A wide variety of types of malware exist, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, and scareware.
The 2003 Microsoft Encyclopedia of Security and some other sources use the term "adware" differently: "any software that installs itself on your system without your knowledge and displays advertisements when the user browses the Internet", i.e., a form of malware.

Software

Computer softwareSoftware & Programmingsoftware technology
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, client, or computer network (by contrast, software that causes unintentional harm due to some deficiency is typically described as a software bug).
* Malicious software or malware

Email spam

spame-mail spamspam email
Infected "zombie computers" can be used to send email spam, to host contraband data such as child pornography, or to engage in distributed denial-of-service attacks as a form of extortion.
Whether commercial or not, many are not only annoying, but also dangerous because they may contain links that lead to phishing web sites or sites that are hosting malware - or include malware as file attachments.

Stuxnet

cyberattacksIran in 2010Staxnut
Stuxnet, for example, was designed to disrupt very specific industrial equipment.
Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm, first uncovered in 2010, thought to have been in development since at least 2005.

Denial-of-service attack

DDoSdenial of servicedistributed denial of service
Infected "zombie computers" can be used to send email spam, to host contraband data such as child pornography, or to engage in distributed denial-of-service attacks as a form of extortion.
In cases such as MyDoom and Slowloris the tools are embedded in malware, and launch their attacks without the knowledge of the system owner.

Rootkit

rootkitsbootkitantirootkit
Software packages known as rootkits allow this concealment, by modifying the host's operating system so that the malware is hidden from the user.
A rootkit is a collection of computer software, typically malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or an area of its software that is not otherwise allowed (for example, to an unauthorized user) and often masks its existence or the existence of other software.

Trojan Horse

wooden horseTrojan horsesThe Trojan Horse
The term is derived from the Ancient Greek story of the Trojan horse used to invade the city of Troy by stealth.
A malicious computer program that tricks users into willingly running it is also called a "Trojan horse" or simply a "Trojan".

Security bug

security bugsfaultssecurity
Malware exploits security defects (security bugs or vulnerabilities) in the design of the operating system, in applications (such as browsers, e.g. older versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer supported by Windows XP ), or in vulnerable versions of browser plugins such as Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Acrobat or Reader, or Java SE.

Cyberattack

cyber attackcyber-attackcyberattacks
Infected "zombie computers" can be used to send email spam, to host contraband data such as child pornography, or to engage in distributed denial-of-service attacks as a form of extortion.
Software used to for logical attacks on computers is called malware.

Stegomalware

Nowadays, one of the most sophisticated and stealthy ways of evasion is to use information hiding techniques, namely stegomalware.
Stegomalware is a type of malware that uses steganography to hinder detection.

Social engineering (security)

social engineeringpretextingBlagger
Trojan horses are generally spread by some form of social engineering, for example, where a user is duped into executing an e-mail attachment disguised to be unsuspicious, (e.g., a routine form to be filled in), or by drive-by download.
The attacker then tests these websites for vulnerabilities to inject code that may infect a visitor's system with malware.

Drive-by download

drive-by downloadsdrive by attackdrive by download
Trojan horses are generally spread by some form of social engineering, for example, where a user is duped into executing an e-mail attachment disguised to be unsuspicious, (e.g., a routine form to be filled in), or by drive-by download.
This often involves downloading and installing malware, but can be anything, including stealing information to send back to the attacker.

Shamoon

Such attacks were made on Sony Pictures Entertainment (25 November 2014, using malware known as Shamoon or W32.Disttrack) and Saudi Aramco (August 2012).
The malware had a logic bomb which triggered the master boot record and data wiping payload at 11:08am local time on Wednesday, August, 15.

Antivirus software

antivirusanti-virusanti-virus software
A range of antivirus software, firewalls and other strategies are used to help protect against the introduction of malware, to help detect it if it is already present, and to recover from malware-associated malicious activity and attacks. Examples of Microsoft Windows antivirus and anti-malware software include the optional Microsoft Security Essentials (for Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7) for real-time protection, the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool (now included with Windows (Security) Updates on "Patch Tuesday", the second Tuesday of each month), and Windows Defender (an optional download in the case of Windows XP, incorporating MSE functionality in the case of Windows 8 and later).
Antivirus software, or anti-virus software (abbreviated to AV software), also known as anti-malware, is a computer program used to prevent, detect, and remove malware.

Microsoft Security Essentials

Microsoft Malware Protection CenterWindows Security EssentialsMS Essentials
Examples of Microsoft Windows antivirus and anti-malware software include the optional Microsoft Security Essentials (for Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7) for real-time protection, the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool (now included with Windows (Security) Updates on "Patch Tuesday", the second Tuesday of each month), and Windows Defender (an optional download in the case of Windows XP, incorporating MSE functionality in the case of Windows 8 and later).
Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) is an antivirus software (AV) that provides protection against different types of malicious software, such as computer viruses, spyware, rootkits, and trojan horses.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Since the rise of widespread broadband Internet access, malicious software has more frequently been designed for profit.
Malware is malicious software used and distributed via the Internet.

Patch Tuesday

Microsoft Tuesdaypatchesreleased on Tuesday
Examples of Microsoft Windows antivirus and anti-malware software include the optional Microsoft Security Essentials (for Windows XP, Vista, and Windows 7) for real-time protection, the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool (now included with Windows (Security) Updates on "Patch Tuesday", the second Tuesday of each month), and Windows Defender (an optional download in the case of Windows XP, incorporating MSE functionality in the case of Windows 8 and later).
Daily updates consist of malware database refreshes for Windows Defender and Microsoft Security Essentials.

Zombie (computing)

Zombie (computer science)zombie computerzombies
Infected "zombie computers" can be used to send email spam, to host contraband data such as child pornography, or to engage in distributed denial-of-service attacks as a form of extortion.

Removable media

portable mediaremovable diskremovable
For example, removable media can carry malware across the gap.
Using removable media poses some risks, including data theft and the introduction of malware.