Mammary gland

mammaemammary glandsmammarybreast glandlactogenesisteatsbreastsmammary glands, humanmammary tissuenipples
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.wikipedia
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Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Mammals (from Latin mamma "breast") are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females (and sometimes males ) produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones.

Milk

cow's milkcow milkwhole milk
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Milk is a nutrient-rich, white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

Breast

breastsbosombreast tissue
The mammary glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates (for example, humans and chimpanzees), the udder in ruminants (for example, cows, goats, and deer), and the dugs of other animals (for example, dogs and cats).
In females, it serves as the mammary gland, which produces and secretes milk to feed infants.

Lactation

lactatinglactatenurse
Lactorrhea, the occasional production of milk by the glands, can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals, lactation, the production of enough milk for nursing, occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years. During pregnancy, progesterone and prolactin are essential for mediating lobuloalveolar development in estrogen-primed mammary gland tissue, which occurs in preparation of lactation and nursing.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

Exocrine gland

exocrineexocrine glandssecretory gland
A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.
Examples of exocrine glands include sweat, salivary, mammary, ceruminous, lacrimal, sebaceous, and mucous.

Udder

uddersmammary
The mammary glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates (for example, humans and chimpanzees), the udder in ruminants (for example, cows, goats, and deer), and the dugs of other animals (for example, dogs and cats).
An udder is an organ formed of the mammary glands of female ruminants such as cattle, goats, sheep, deer and giraffes.

Female

femalesfeminine
Lactorrhea, the occasional production of milk by the glands, can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals, lactation, the production of enough milk for nursing, occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years.
Female characteristics vary between different species with some species containing more well defined female characteristics, such as the presence of pronounced mammary glands.

Lactiferous duct

milk ductsmilk ductductal
Each lobule has a lactiferous duct that drains into openings in the nipple.
Lactiferous ducts are those ducts that converge and form a branched system connecting the nipple to the lobules of the mammary gland.

Male lactation

paternal lactationproducing milk
In a few mammalian species, male lactation can occur.
In zoology, male lactation is production of milk (lactation) from a male mammal's mammary glands.

Sweat gland

sweat glandsporesweat
Many sources assert that mammary glands are modified sweat glands.
Ceruminous glands (which produce ear wax), mammary glands (which produce milk), and ciliary glands in the eyelids are modified apocrine sweat glands.

Nipple

nipplesteatsNipple erection
Each lobule has a lactiferous duct that drains into openings in the nipple. During puberty, tubule formation is coupled with branching morphogenesis which establishes the basic arboreal network of ducts emanating from the nipple.
The physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk to the infant, produced in the female mammary glands during lactation.

Oxytocin

oxytocicsfirst synthesis of a polypeptide hormoneBonding in mammals
The myoepithelial cells contract under the stimulation of oxytocin, excreting the milk secreted by alveolar units into the lobule lumen toward the nipple.

Apocrine

apocrine glandapocrine glands
A mammary gland is a specific type of apocrine gland specialized for manufacture of colostrum when giving birth.
An example of true apocrine glands is the mammary glands, responsible for secreting breast milk.

Prolactin

PRLlactationprolactin secretion
During pregnancy, progesterone and prolactin are essential for mediating lobuloalveolar development in estrogen-primed mammary gland tissue, which occurs in preparation of lactation and nursing.
It stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk (lactation): increased serum concentrations of prolactin during pregnancy cause enlargement of the mammary glands and prepare for milk production, which normally starts when levels of progesterone fall by the end of pregnancy and a suckling stimulus is present.

Progesterone

EndometrinprogestationalProgesterone for prevention of preterm birth
During pregnancy, progesterone and prolactin are essential for mediating lobuloalveolar development in estrogen-primed mammary gland tissue, which occurs in preparation of lactation and nursing.
In conjunction with prolactin, it mediates lobuloalveolar maturation of the mammary glands during pregnancy to allow for milk production and thus lactation and breastfeeding of offspring following parturition (childbirth).

Mammary alveolus

lobuloalveolaralveolilobuloalveolar maturation
During pregnancy, progesterone and prolactin are essential for mediating lobuloalveolar development in estrogen-primed mammary gland tissue, which occurs in preparation of lactation and nursing.
8. Skin]]A mammary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin alveolus, "little cavity") is a small cavity or sac found in the mammary gland.

Epithelium

epithelialepithelial cellsepithelial cell
The basic components of a mature mammary gland are the alveoli (hollow cavities, a few millimeters large) lined with milk-secreting cuboidal cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells.

Colostrum

beestingsfirst milkhyperimmune bovine colostrum
In late pregnancy and for the first few days after giving birth, colostrum is secreted.
Colostrum (known colloquially as beestings, bisnings or first milk) is the first form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including many humans) immediately following delivery of the newborn.

Hepatocyte growth factor

HGFhepatocyte growth factor/scatter factorhepatic growth factor
In addition to IGF-1, other paracrine growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), amphiregulin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are involved in breast development as mediators downstream to sex hormones and GH/IGF-1.
HGF is also importantly involved in normal mammary gland development.

Mammary ridge

milk linemammary lines
The protruding teats and accompanying glands can be located anywhere along the two milk lines.
The mammary ridge or mammary crest, is a primordium specific for the development of the mammary gland.

Myoepithelial cell

myoepithelialmyoepithelial cellsmyoepithelial layer
The basic components of a mature mammary gland are the alveoli (hollow cavities, a few millimeters large) lined with milk-secreting cuboidal cells and surrounded by myoepithelial cells.
They are found in the sweat glands, mammary glands, lacrimal glands, and salivary glands.

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EGFREGF receptorEGFR inhibitor
Important players include beta-1 integrin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), laminin-1/5, collagen-IV, matrix metalloproteinase(MMPs), heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and others.
The EGFR is essential for ductal development of the mammary glands, and agonists of the EGFR such as amphiregulin, TGF-α, and heregulin induce both ductal and lobuloalveolar development even in the absence of estrogen and progesterone.

Amphiregulin

AREG
In addition to IGF-1, other paracrine growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), amphiregulin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are involved in breast development as mediators downstream to sex hormones and GH/IGF-1.
AREG is a critical factor in estrogen action and ductal development of the mammary glands.

Morphogenesis

developmentmorphogeneticmorphogenic
During puberty, tubule formation is coupled with branching morphogenesis which establishes the basic arboreal network of ducts emanating from the nipple.
A well-studied example of morphogenesis that involves ECM is mammary gland ductal branching.

Estrogen receptor

estrogenERestrogen receptors
However, GH itself also acts independently of IGF-1 to stimulate ductal development by upregulating estrogen receptor (ER) expression in mammary gland tissue, which is a downstream effect of mammary gland GHR activation.