A report on Mammography

Mammography
Illustration of a mammogram
A mobile mammography unit in New Zealand
Normal (left) versus cancerous (right) mammography image

Process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.

- Mammography
Mammography

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An illustration of breast cancer

Breast cancer

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Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

An illustration of breast cancer
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

A 2013 Cochrane review found that it was unclear if mammographic screening does more harm than good, in that a large proportion of women who test positive turn out not to have the disease.

A drawing of mastitis from the early 1900s

Mastitis

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Inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.

Inflammation of the breast or udder, usually associated with breastfeeding.

A drawing of mastitis from the early 1900s
An ultrasound image of puerperal mastitis
Mastitis localized on the underside of the breast, with a large area of inflammation.
Udder of a Roux du Valais sheep after a healed mastitis; one teat was lost due to the disease.
Serous exudate from bovine udder in E. coli mastitis<ref>{{cite journal | author = Kandasamy S, Green BB, Benjamin AL, Kerr DE | date = Dec 2011 | title = Between-cow variation in dermal fibroblast response to lipopolysaccharide reflected in resolution of inflammation during Escherichia coli mastitis | journal = J. Dairy Sci. | volume = 94 | issue = 12| pages = 5963–75 | doi = 10.3168/jds.2011-4288 | pmid = 22118085 }}</ref> at left. Normal milk at right.
Gangrenous mastitis in a dairy cow.
Cat suffering from mastitis

Mammograms or breast biopsies are normally performed on women who do not respond to treatment or on non-breastfeeding women.

A radiologist interpreting magnetic resonance imaging

Radiology

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Medical discipline that uses medical imaging to diagnose diseases and guide their treatment, within the bodies of humans and other animals.

Medical discipline that uses medical imaging to diagnose diseases and guide their treatment, within the bodies of humans and other animals.

A radiologist interpreting magnetic resonance imaging
Radiography of the knee using a DR machine
Projectional radiograph of the knee
Image from a CT scan of the brain
MRI of the knee
A radiologist interprets medical images on a modern picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstation. San Diego, California, 2010.
X-ray of a hand with calculation of bone age analysis

Mammography and DXA are two applications of low energy projectional radiography, used for the evaluation for breast cancer and osteoporosis, respectively.

A radiographer with a radiographic examination table and X-Ray tube.

Radiographer

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Radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology.

Radiographers, also known as radiologic technologists, diagnostic radiographers and medical radiation technologists are healthcare professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology.

A radiographer with a radiographic examination table and X-Ray tube.
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube apparatus, late 1800s.
The first radiograph

Radiographers now perform fluoroscopy, computed tomography, mammography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging as well.

Projectional radiography of the knee in a modern X-ray machine

Radiography

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Imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view the internal form of an object.

Imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view the internal form of an object.

Projectional radiography of the knee in a modern X-ray machine
Acquisition of projectional radiography, with an X-ray generator and a detector.
Images generated from computed tomography, including a 3D rendered image at upper left.
Angiogram showing a transverse projection of the vertebro basilar and posterior cerebral circulation.
Radiography may also be used in paleontology, such as for these radiographs of the Darwinius fossil Ida.
A plain radiograph of the elbow
AP radiograph of the lumbar spine
A hand prepared to be X-rayed
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube apparatus, late 1800s
The first radiograph
1897 sciagraph (X-ray photograph) of Pelophylax lessonae (then Rana Esculenta), from James Green & James H. Gardiner's "Sciagraphs of British Batrachians and Reptiles"

Radiographers now perform fluoroscopy, computed tomography, mammography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging as well.

United States Preventive Services Task Force

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Independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

Independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

In 2009, the USPSTF updated its advice for screening mammograms.

Dense breast tissue

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Condition of the breasts where a higher proportion of the breasts are made up of glandular tissue and fibrous tissue than fatty tissue.

Condition of the breasts where a higher proportion of the breasts are made up of glandular tissue and fibrous tissue than fatty tissue.

Around 40–50% of women have dense breast tissue and one of the main medical components of the condition is that mammograms are unable to differentiate tumorous tissue from the surrounding dense tissue.

Morphology of human female breasts with the areola, nipple, and inframammary fold

Breast

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One of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of a primate's torso.

One of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of a primate's torso.

Morphology of human female breasts with the areola, nipple, and inframammary fold
Breast development in puberty is measured with the five-stage Tanner Scale
Breast with visible stretch marks
A baby breastfeeding
Conventional mastectomy (top); skin sparing mastectomy and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstruction, prior to nipple reconstruction and tattooing (bottom).
Femen member participating in a protest
As is customary in her culture, a bare-breasted Himba woman of northern Namibia wears a traditional headdress and skirt
A Cretan snake goddess from the Minoan civilization, {{circa|1600}} BC
1825 oil painting entitled Tetuppa, a Native Female of the Sandwich Islands, by Robert Dampier

Factors that appear to be implicated in decreasing the risk of breast cancer are regular breast examinations by health care professionals, regular mammograms, self-examination of breasts, healthy diet, and exercise to decrease excess body fat, and breastfeeding.

Malignant tumor (right) spreads uncontrollably and invades the surrounding tissues; benign tumor (left) remains self-contained from neighbouring tissue

Malignancy

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Tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Malignant tumor (right) spreads uncontrollably and invades the surrounding tissues; benign tumor (left) remains self-contained from neighbouring tissue

In cases where there is no obvious representation of a lump, a mammogram or an MRI test can be used to determine the presence of a tumour.

Two PEM images, including sites of tracer uptake

Positron emission mammography

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Nuclear medicine imaging modality used to detect or characterise breast cancer.

Nuclear medicine imaging modality used to detect or characterise breast cancer.

Two PEM images, including sites of tracer uptake
A commercial PEM system with 64-ring detectors. It is designed for prone imaging, so that the breasts hang freely in the detector, through an opening.

Mammography typically refers to x-ray imaging of the breast, while PEM uses an injected positron emitting isotope and a dedicated scanner to locate breast tumors.