Manchester Baby

BabyA routine for the Manchester BabyBaby, or SSEMfirst electronic stored-program computermodern computerstored-program computer
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first electronic stored-program computer.wikipedia
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Tom Kilburn

Thomas KilburnKilburn buildingTom Kilburn, Ph.D., CBE, FRS
It was built at the University of Manchester, UK, by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn, and Geoff Tootill, and ran its first program on 21 June 1948, 71 years ago.
With Freddie Williams he worked on the Williams–Kilburn tube and the world's first electronic stored-program computer, the Manchester Baby, while working at the University of Manchester.

University of Manchester

Manchester UniversityManchesterThe University of Manchester
It was built at the University of Manchester, UK, by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn, and Geoff Tootill, and ran its first program on 21 June 1948, 71 years ago.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences; it is where the nuclear nature of the atom was discovered by Ernest Rutherford, and the world's first electronic stored-program computer was built at the university.

Geoff Tootill

It was built at the University of Manchester, UK, by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn, and Geoff Tootill, and ran its first program on 21 June 1948, 71 years ago.
Geoff C. Tootill (4 March 1922 – 26 October 2017) was an electronic engineer and computer scientist who worked in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Manchester with Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn developing the Manchester Baby, "the world's first wholly electronic stored-program computer".

Random-access memory

RAMmemoryrandom access memory
The machine was not intended to be a practical computer, but was instead designed as a testbed for the Williams tube, the first truly random-access memory.
Developed at the University of Manchester in England, the Williams tube provided the medium on which the first electronically stored program was implemented in the Manchester Baby computer, which first successfully ran a program on 21 June 1948.

Stored-program computer

stored programstored-programprogrammable computer
The Manchester Baby, also known as the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), was the world's first electronic stored-program computer.
The University of Manchester's Baby is generally recognized as world's first electronic computer that ran a stored program—an event that occurred on 21 June 1948.

Word (computer architecture)

wordwordsword size
The Baby had a 32-bit word length and a memory of 32 words (1 kilobit).

Frederic Calland Williams

Freddie WilliamsFrederic C. WilliamsFreddie" Williams
It was built at the University of Manchester, UK, by Frederic C. Williams, Tom Kilburn, and Geoff Tootill, and ran its first program on 21 June 1948, 71 years ago.
There, with Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill, he built the first electronic stored-program digital computer, the Manchester Baby.

Williams tube

Williams–Kilburn tubeWilliams tubesWilliams-Kilburn tube
The machine was not intended to be a practical computer, but was instead designed as a testbed for the Williams tube, the first truly random-access memory.
Developed at the University of Manchester in England, it provided the medium on which the first electronically stored-memory program was implemented in the Manchester Baby computer, which first successfully ran a program on 21 June 1948.

Analytical Engine

Analytic EngineBabbage engineBabbage machine
The first design for a program-controlled computer was Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine in the 1830s.

Max Newman

M. H. A. NewmanMaxwell Herman Alexander NewmanNewman, Max
After developing the Colossus computer for code breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II, Max Newman was committed to the development of a computer incorporating both Alan Turing's mathematical concepts and the stored-program concept that had been described by John von Neumann.
His work in World War II led to the construction of Colossus, the world's first operational, programmable electronic computer, and he established the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester, which produced the world's first working, electronic stored-program electronic computer in 1948, the Manchester Baby.

ENIAC

Electronic Numerical Integrator And ComputerElectronic computerENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
The ENIAC (1946) was the first machine that was both electronic and general purpose.
In June 1948, the Manchester Baby ran its first program and earned the distinction of first electronic stored-program computer.

Manchester computers

Transistor ComputerMU5operational by 1953
Although Newman played no engineering role in the development of the Baby, or any of the subsequent Manchester computers, he was generally supportive and enthusiastic about the project, and arranged for the acquisition of war-surplus supplies for its construction, including GPO metal racks and "…the material of two complete Colossi" from Bletchley.
The first of the series, the Manchester Baby, ran its first program on 21 June 1948.

Z3 (computer)

Z3Zuse Z3Z3 computer
Konrad Zuse's Z3 was the world's first working programmable, fully automatic computer, with binary digital arithmetic logic, but it lacked the conditional branching of a Turing machine.
The Manchester Baby of 1948 along with the Manchester Mark 1 and EDSAC both of 1949 were the world's earliest working computers that stored program instructions and data in the same space.

Colossus computer

ColossusColossus (computer)Colossus computers
After developing the Colossus computer for code breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II, Max Newman was committed to the development of a computer incorporating both Alan Turing's mathematical concepts and the stored-program concept that had been described by John von Neumann. The Colossus of 1943 was the first electronic computing device, but it was not a general-purpose machine.

EDVAC

first stored-program computerEDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
At about the same time, EDVAC was under development at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering, and the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory was working on EDSAC.
The British computers EDSAC at Cambridge and the Manchester Baby were the first working computers that followed this design.

Manchester Mark 1

Manchester Mark IMark 1Manchester computer
The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest stored-program computers, developed at the Victoria University of Manchester from the Manchester Baby (operational in June 1948).

Telecommunications Research Establishment

TREBawdsey Research Stationearly radar in the UK during World War II
The Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) was also approached for assistance, as was Maurice Wilkes at the University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory.

Science and Industry Museum

Museum of Science and IndustryMuseum of Science and Industry in ManchesterManchester Museum of Science and Industry
In 1998, a working replica of the Baby, now on display at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester, was built to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the running of its first program.
*A replica of the Manchester Baby

Pentode

penthode
It was 17 ft in length, 7 ft tall, and weighed almost 1 LT. The machine contained 550 valves (vacuum tubes)—300 diodes and 250 pentodes—and had a power consumption of 3500 watts.
The Colossus computer and the Manchester Baby used large numbers of EF36 pentode tubes.

Computing Machine Laboratory

Turing had by then been appointed to the nominal post of Deputy Director of the Computing Machine Laboratory at the university, although the laboratory did not become a physical reality until 1951.
He recruited the engineers Frederic Calland Williams and Thomas Kilburn where they built the world's first electronic stored-program digital computer, which came to be known as the Manchester Baby, based on Alan Turing's ideas.

Testbed

test bedtest-bedflying test bed
The machine was not intended to be a practical computer, but was instead designed as a testbed for the Williams tube, the first truly random-access memory.

Ferranti Mark 1

Ferranti Mark IMark 1Ferranti Mark 1*
The Mark 1 in turn quickly became the prototype for the Ferranti Mark 1, the world's first commercially available general-purpose computer.

Bit

bitsbinary digitbinary digits
The Baby had a 32-bit word length and a memory of 32 words (1 kilobit).

Computer memory

memorymemoriesmain memory
The Baby had a 32-bit word length and a memory of 32 words (1 kilobit).

Subtraction

differencesubtrahendminuend
As it was designed to be the simplest possible stored-program computer, the only arithmetic operations implemented in hardware were subtraction and negation; other arithmetic operations were implemented in software.