Manchu people

ManchuManchusManchurianethnic ManchuMan peopleManchu ethnicityBannermenethnic Manchusethnically ManchuJurchens
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.wikipedia
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Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.
The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria.

Manchuria

ManchurianThree Eastern ProvincesNortheast
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
The name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland.

Jurchen people

JurchenJurchensJurchen tribes
The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.
In about 1630, the Jianzhou reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.

Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County

Hetu AlaXinbinXinbin County
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County (, Manchu: ; Mölendroff: sinbin manju beye dasangga siyan), or simply Xinbin County (postal: Sinpin; ), is one of the three counties under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Fushun, in the east of Liaoning Province, China, bordering Jilin Province to the east.

Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County

QinglongQinglong CountyQinglong Co.
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Qinglong Manchu Autonomous County (, Manchu: ; Mölendroff: cinglung manju beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu autonomous county of northeastern Hebei province, China, bordering Liaoning to the north and east and located in the eastern part of the Yan Mountains.

Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County

WeichangWeichang CountyWeichang Co.
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County (Manchu: ; Mölendroff: weicang manju monggo beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu and Mongol autonomous county located in far northeastern Hebei province, China.

Qingyuan Manchu Autonomous County

QingyuanQingyuan CountyQingyuan Co.
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Qingyuan Manchu Autonomous County (, Manchu: ; Mölendroff: cingyuwan manju beye dasangga siyan), or simply Qingyuan County is one of the three counties under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Fushun, in the east of Liaoning, People's Republic of China, and is also one of the 11 Manchu autonomous counties and one of 117 autonomous counties nationally.

Yitong Manchu Autonomous County

YitongFu-an villageYitong Co.
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Yitong Manchu Autonomous County (, Manchu: ; Mölendroff: itu manju beye dasangga siyan) is located in western Jilin province, People's Republic of China, 52 km south of the provincial capital, Changchun.

Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County

KuanchengKuancheng Co.Kuancheng County
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Kuancheng Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu: ; [ Möllendorff: kuwanceng manju beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu autonomous county of northeastern Hebei province, China, on the banks of the Luan River, bordering Liaoning to the east.

Benxi Manchu Autonomous County

BenxiBenxi Co.Benxi County
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Benxi Manchu Autonomous County (Manchu: ; Mölendroff: bensi manju beye dasangga siyan) is an autonomous county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Benxi, in the east of Liaoning province, China.

Huanren Manchu Autonomous County

HuanrenHuanren CountyHuanren Co.
There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.
Huanren Manchu Autonomous County (, Manchu: ; Mölendroff: huwanren manju beye dasangga siyan), formerly Huairen County, is a county under the administration of Benxi City, in eastern Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, bordering Jilin to the east.

Tungusic peoples

TungusicTungusTungusic people
Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country. The cognates Sushen or Jichen again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to the Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far northeast.
The Manchu originally came from Manchuria, which is now Northeast China and Russian Far East.

Beijing

Beijing, ChinaPekingPeking, China
Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. As a result of their conquest of China, almost all the Manchus followed the prince regent Dorgon and the Shunzhi Emperor to Beijing and settled there.
The capture of Beijing by Li Zicheng's peasant army in 1644 ended the dynasty, but he and his Shun court abandoned the city without a fight when the Manchu army of Prince Dorgon arrived 40 days later.

Ming dynasty

MingMing ChinaMing Empire
The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368.
Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.

Ethnic minorities in China

ethnic minoritiesethnic minorityChina's ethnic minorities
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Most Hui Chinese are indistinguishable from Han Chinese except for the fact that they practice Islam, and most Manchu are considered to be largely assimilated into dominant Han society.

Mengtemu

Möngke TemürMentemuAisin Gioro Mengtemu
Soon after that, Möngke Temür, chieftain of the Odoli clan of the Jianzhou Jurchens, defected from paying tribute to Korea, becoming a tributary state to China instead.
Möngke Temür ( or ) or Dudu Mengtemu (Manchu: ; ) (1370–1433) was the Jurchen chieftain of the Odoli tribe, one of the three tribes of the lower Sunggari river valley in Manchuria.

List of Jurchen chieftains

Chieftain of the Jianzhou JurchensList of Chieftains of the JurchensAi Xinjue Luo Bukuri Yushun
At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as [[List of Chieftains of the Jurchens#Odoli Clan (1405–1616) (俄朵里 or 斡都里 or 斡朵里 or 吾都里 or 斡朵怜)|Odoli]] and Huligai.
The Jurchens were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria (present-day Northeast China) until the 17th century, when they adopted the name Manchu.

Mohe people

MoheMalgalBaishan Mohe
The cognates Sushen or Jichen again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to the Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far northeast.
The Heishui Mohe in particular are considered to be the direct ancestors of the Jurchens, from whom the 17th century Manchu people originated.

Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia Autonomous RegionNei MongolInner
Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents.
The Khitans were later replaced by the Jurchens, precursors to the modern Manchus, who established the Jin dynasty over Manchuria and northern China.

Eight Banners

BannermenBordered Yellow BannerBanner
He reunified the Jurchen tribes, established a military system called the "Eight Banners", which organized Jurchen soldiers into groups of "Bannermen", and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as Manchu script) using the traditional Mongolian alphabet as a reference.
The Eight Banners (in Manchu: jakūn gūsa, ) were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed.

Shenyang

MukdenFengtianShenyang, China
Manchus practiced slash-and-burn agriculture in the areas north of Shenyang.
In the 17th century, Shenyang was conquered by the Manchu people and briefly used as the capital of the Qing dynasty.

Nurhaci

NurhachiNurgaciAbkai fulingga Khan
For political reasons, the Jurchen leader Nurhaci chose variously to emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols.
Nurhaci reorganised and united various Jurchen tribes (the later "Manchu"), consolidated the Eight Banners military system, and eventually launched attacks on Ming dynasty of China and Joseon dynasty of Korea.

Transition from Ming to Qing

Qing conquest of the MingManchu conquest of Chinafall of the Ming dynasty
As a result of their conquest of China, almost all the Manchus followed the prince regent Dorgon and the Shunzhi Emperor to Beijing and settled there.
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a decades-long period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in contemporary Northeast China, the Ming dynasty, and various other rebel powers in China, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty led by Li Zicheng.

Researches on Manchu Origins

Manzhou Yuanliu KaoResearch on the Origin of the Manchus
According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī.
The Manzhou Yuanliu Kao also bolstered Qianlong's conception of the Manchu people as a wu, or martial race.

Hong Taiji

HuangtaijiHuang TaijiHongtaiji
In 1635, his son and successor Huangtaiji changed the name of the Jurchen ethnic group to the Manchu.
He was also responsible for changing the name of his people from Jurchen to Manchu in 1635, as well as that of the dynasty from Later Jin to Qing in 1636.