Manchuria

ManchurianThree Eastern ProvincesNortheastGuandongManchuNortheast ChinaChina's northeastChinese ManchuriaChinese TartaryManchurian tribes
This article is about the region of northeastern Asia.wikipedia
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Koreans

KoreanSouth KoreanKorean people
Northeastern China is now predominantly Han Chinese and is considered the homeland of several groups besides the Manchus, including the Koreans, the Xianbei, the Shiwei, and the Khitans.
Koreans (한민족, 한국인, 한국사람; Hanja: 韓民族, 韓國人, 韓國사람; RR: Hanminjok, Hanguk-in, Hanguksaram in South Korean; alternatively 조선민족, 조선인, 조선사람; Hanja: 朝鮮民族, 朝鮮人, 朝鮮사람; RR: Joseonminjok, Joseonin, Joseonsaram in North Korean, ; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group native to Korea and southwestern Manchuria.

Later Jin (1616–1636)

Later JinLater Jin dynastyManchu
The Later Jin (1616–1636) was a khanate in Manchuria ruled by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro leaders Nurhaci and Hong Taiji.

Shiwei people

Shiwei
Northeastern China is now predominantly Han Chinese and is considered the homeland of several groups besides the Manchus, including the Koreans, the Xianbei, the Shiwei, and the Khitans.
Shiwei were a Mongolic people that inhabited far-eastern Mongolia, northern Inner Mongolia, northern Manchuria and the area near the Okhotsk Sea beach.

Manchuria under Qing rule

Manchurianortheastern provincesOuter Manchuria
Over the next several decades, the Jurchen took control of most of Manchuria.
Manchuria under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty over Manchuria, including today's Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.

Mongols

MongolMongolianMongolians
The area is also home to many Mongols and, in Russia, Russians.
Based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria.

Liaoning

Liaoning ProvinceFengtianFengtian Province
Manchuria is now most often associated with the three Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning.
Liaoning is the southernmost province of Northeast China, historically also known as Manchuria.

Manchukuo

ManchuriaEmperor of ManchukuoPrime Minister of Manchukuo
In China, the term Manchuria is rarely used today, and the term is often negatively associated with the Japanese imperial legacy and the puppet state of Manchukuo.
In Japanese, the name refers to the state of Manchuria, the region of the Manchus.

Jilin

Jilin ProvinceKirinKirin Province
Manchuria is now most often associated with the three Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning.
The Manchu people once inhabited the area of Jilin, thus making Jilin part of the historical region of Manchuria.

Northeast China

NortheastNortheastern Chinanortheastern
The area is often known in European languages as Manchuria, as it was the homeland of the Manchu people who ruled China as its Qing dynasty from the 17th to early 20th century.

Primorsky Krai

PrimoryeMaritime ProvincePrimorsky
The region of the Qing Empire referenced as Manchuria originally further included Ussuri and Primoskiy Krais and the southern part of Harbin Oblast.
Historically part of Manchuria, Primorsky Krai was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China in 1860 as part of a region known as Outer Manchuria, forming most of the territory of Primorskaya Oblast.

Khitan people

KhitanKhitansKhitan Empire
Northeastern China is now predominantly Han Chinese and is considered the homeland of several groups besides the Manchus, including the Koreans, the Xianbei, the Shiwei, and the Khitans.
The man came from the T'u River (Lao Ha river in modern-day Jilin, Manchuria) and the woman from the Huang River (modern day Xar Moron river in Inner Mongolia).

Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang ProvinceHeilungkiangHeilongjang
Manchuria is now most often associated with the three Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning.
These areas deep in Manchuria were closed off to Han Chinese migration.

Manchu people

ManchuManchusManchurian
The name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

Treaty of Aigun

Aigun TreatyAigun
These districts were acknowledged as Qing territory by the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk but ceded to the Russian Empire as the Amur Acquisition in the unequal 1858 Treaty of Aigun and 1860 Convention of Beijing.
The Treaty of Aigun (Russian: Айгунский договор; ) was an 1858 unequal treaty between the Russian Empire, and the empire of the Qing Dynasty, the Manchu rulers of China, that established much of the modern border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria (the original homeland of the Manchu people and the Qing Dynasty), which is now known as Northeast China.

Manchu language

ManchuManchurianNative Name
During the Qing dynasty, the region was known as the "three eastern provinces" (Manchu, Dergi Ilan Golo) since 1683 when Jilin and Heilongjiang were separated even though it was not until 1907 that they were turned into actual provinces.
Manchu (Manchu:, manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China and in Inner Asia.

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
The area of Manchuria was then converted into three provinces by the late Qing government in 1907.
The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria.

Guandong

The name Guandong later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the Kwantung Leased Territory on the Liaodong Peninsula.

Hong Taiji

HuangtaijiHuang TaijiHongtaiji
The name Manju was invented and given to the Jurchen people by Hong Taiji in 1635 as a new name for their ethnic group; however, the name "Manchuria" was never used by the Manchus or the Qing dynasty itself to refer to their homeland.
He continued the expansion of the state in the region later known as Manchuria, pushing deeper into Mongolia and raiding Korea and Ming China.

Tongliao

JirimTongliao CityBayisingtu
The former Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo further included the prefectures of Chengde (now in Hebei) and Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Tongliao, and Chifeng (now in Inner Mongolia).
After the Japanese Kwantung Army invaded Manchuria in 1931, a Japanese-controlled puppet state Manchukuo was established in Hsinking, 280 kilometers away from today's Tongliao urban area.

Hebei

Hebei ProvinceHopeiHopeh
The former Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo further included the prefectures of Chengde (now in Hebei) and Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Tongliao, and Chifeng (now in Inner Mongolia). Manchuria has also been referred to as Guandong, which literally means "east of the pass", and similarly Guanwai (關外; 关外; Guānwài; "outside the pass"), a reference to Shanhai Pass in Qinhuangdao in today's Hebei, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China.
The founding of the People's Republic of China saw several changes: the region around Chengde, previously part of Rehe Province (historically part of Manchuria), and the region around Zhangjiakou, previously part of Chahar Province (historically part of Inner Mongolia), were merged into Hebei, extending its borders northwards beyond the Great Wall.

Shanhai Pass

ShanhaiguanLinyuguanShan Hai Kuan
Manchuria has also been referred to as Guandong, which literally means "east of the pass", and similarly Guanwai (關外; 关外; Guānwài; "outside the pass"), a reference to Shanhai Pass in Qinhuangdao in today's Hebei, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China.
Throughout Chinese history, the pass served as a frontline defensive outpost against ethnic groups from Manchuria, including the Khitan, Jurchen and the Manchus.

Inner Mongolia

Inner Mongolia Autonomous RegionNei MongolInner
The former Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo further included the prefectures of Chengde (now in Hebei) and Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Tongliao, and Chifeng (now in Inner Mongolia).

Tartary

TartarsTartarTartaria
In the 18th-century Europe, the region later known as "Manchuria" was most commonly referred to as "[Chinese] Tartary".
It encompassed the vast region of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, the Volga-Urals, the Caucasus, Siberia, Inner Asia, Mongolia and Manchuria.

Gobi Desert

GobiEastern Gobi desert steppeSouth Gobi Desert
No part of Manchuria was glaciated during the Quaternary, but the surface geology of most of the lower-lying and more fertile parts of Manchuria consists of very deep layers of loess, which have been formed by wind-borne movement of dust and till particles formed in glaciated parts of the Himalayas, Kunlun Shan and Tien Shan, as well as the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts.
In its broadest definition, the Gobi includes the long stretch of desert extending from the foot of the Pamirs (77° east) to the Greater Khingan Mountains, 116°-118° east, on the border of Manchuria; and from the foothills of the Altay, Sayan, and Yablonoi mountain ranges on the north to the Kunlun, Altyn-Tagh, and Qilian mountain ranges, which form the northern edges of the Tibetan Plateau, on the south.

Kwantung Leased Territory

KwantungKwantung PeninsulaGovernor-General of Kwantung
The name Guandong later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the Kwantung Leased Territory on the Liaodong Peninsula.
The name originally referred to all of Manchuria but later came to be used more narrowly for the area of the leased territory.