Mangin mirror

Diagram of a Mangin mirror.
Example of a catadioptric lens that uses rear surfaced "mangin mirrors" (Minolta RF Rokkor-X 250mm f/5.6)

Negative meniscus lens with the reflective surface on the rear side of the glass forming a curved mirror that reflects light without spherical aberration.

- Mangin mirror
Diagram of a Mangin mirror.

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A 150 mm aperture catadioptric Maksutov telescope

Catadioptric system

One where refraction and reflection are combined in an optical system, usually via lenses and curved mirrors (catoptrics).

One where refraction and reflection are combined in an optical system, usually via lenses and curved mirrors (catoptrics).

A 150 mm aperture catadioptric Maksutov telescope
Light path in a Schmidt–Cassegrain
Light path in a meniscus telescope (Maksutov–Cassegrain)
Houghton doublet corrector design equations – special case symmetric design.
Light path in an Argunov Cassegrain telescope
Example of a catadioptric lens using rear surfaced "mangin mirrors" (Minolta RF Rokkor-X 250mm f/5.6)
An example of 'iris blur' or bokeh produced by a catadioptric lens, behind an in-focus light.
500 mm catadioptric lens mounted on a Yashica FX-3
Minolta AF 500 mm F/8 catadioptric lens mounted on a Sony Alpha 55 camera
Samyang 500mm f/8

In 1876 a French engineer, A. Mangin, invented what has come to be called the Mangin mirror, a concave glass reflector with the silver surface on the rear side of the glass.

Ludwig Schupmann

German professor of architecture and an optical designer.

German professor of architecture and an optical designer.

He is principally remembered today for his Medial and Brachymedial telescopes, types of catadioptric reflecting-refracting telescopes with Mangin mirrors that eliminate chromatic aberrations while using common optical glasses.

Light path in an Argunov–Cassegrain telescope

Argunov–Cassegrain telescope

Catadioptric telescope design first introduced in 1972 by P. P. Argunov.

Catadioptric telescope design first introduced in 1972 by P. P. Argunov.

Light path in an Argunov–Cassegrain telescope

All optics are spherical, and the classical Cassegrain secondary mirror is replaced by a sub-aperture secondary corrector group consisting of three air-spaced elements, two lenses and a Mangin mirror (the element farthest from the primary mirror).

A Klevtsov-Cassegrain reflecting telescope

Klevtsov–Cassegrain telescope

A Klevtsov-Cassegrain reflecting telescope
Light path in a Klevtsov-Cassegrain reflector telescope

The Klevtsov–Cassegrain telescope is a type of catadioptric Cassegrain telescope that uses a spherical primary mirror and a sub-aperture secondary corrector group composed of a small lens and a Mangin mirror.

Aluminising tank at Mont Mégantic Observatory used for re-coating telescope mirrors.

Silvering

Chemical process of coating a non-conductive substrate such as glass with a reflective substance, to produce a mirror.

Chemical process of coating a non-conductive substrate such as glass with a reflective substance, to produce a mirror.

Aluminising tank at Mont Mégantic Observatory used for re-coating telescope mirrors.
To speed up the reaction process of the silver, the ornaments are shaken in hot water, Lauscha

However, the glass layer may absorb some of the light and cause distortions and optical aberrations due to refraction at the front surface, and multiple additional reflections on it, giving rise to "ghost images" (although some optical mirrors such as Mangins, take advantage of it).

Albert Bouwers 1941 catadioptric telescope with a concentric meniscus corrector

Meniscus corrector

Negative meniscus lens that is used to correct spherical aberration in image-forming optical systems such as catadioptric telescopes.

Negative meniscus lens that is used to correct spherical aberration in image-forming optical systems such as catadioptric telescopes.

Albert Bouwers 1941 catadioptric telescope with a concentric meniscus corrector

The idea of using the spherical aberration of a meniscus lens to correct the opposite aberration in a spherical objective dates back as far as W. F. Hamilton’s 1814 Hamiltonian telescope, in Colonel A. Mangin's 1876 Mangin mirror, and also appears in Ludwig Schupmann’s Schupmann medial telescope near the end of the 19th century.

View through Tasco ProPoint red dot sight (model PDP2ST) on a Ruger 10/22. Made in Japan for Tasco, the ProPoint 2 was one of the first red dot sight models to become widely popular.

Red dot sight

Common classification for a type of non-magnifying reflector sight for firearms, and other devices that require aiming, that gives the user a point of aim in the form of an illuminated red dot.

Common classification for a type of non-magnifying reflector sight for firearms, and other devices that require aiming, that gives the user a point of aim in the form of an illuminated red dot.

View through Tasco ProPoint red dot sight (model PDP2ST) on a Ruger 10/22. Made in Japan for Tasco, the ProPoint 2 was one of the first red dot sight models to become widely popular.
Diagram of a typical "red dot" sight using a collimating mirror with a light-emitting diode at its focus that creates a virtual "dot" image at infinity
A U.S. Marine looking through an ITL MARS combination red dot and laser sight mounted on his M16A4 MWS rifle during the Second Battle of Fallujah in 2004

The optics used is a type of Mangin mirror system, consisting of a meniscus lens corrector element combined with the semi-reflective mirror, sometimes referred to in advertising as a "two lens" or "double lens" system.

A mirror reflecting a vase

Mirror

Object that reflects an image.

Object that reflects an image.

A mirror reflecting a vase
A first surface mirror coated with aluminum and enhanced with dielectric coatings. The angle of the incident light (represented by both the light in the mirror and the shadow behind it) matches the exact angle of reflection (the reflected light shining on the table).
4.5 m high acoustic mirror near Kilnsea Grange, East Yorkshire, UK, from World War I. The mirror magnified the sound of approaching enemy Zeppelins for a microphone placed at the focal point.
Roman fresco of a woman fixing her hair using a mirror, from Stabiae, Italy, 1st century AD
Detail of the convex mirror from the Arnolfini portrait, Bruges, 1434 AD
'Adorning Oneself', detail from 'Admonitions of the Instructress to the Palace Ladies', Tang dynasty copy of an original by Chinese painter Gu Kaizhi, c. 344–405 AD
A sculpture of a lady looking into a mirror, from Halebidu, India, 12th century
18th century vermeil mirror in the Musée des Arts décoratifs, Strasbourg
Mirror with laquered back inlaid with 4 phoenixes holding ribbons in their mouths. Tang Dynasty. Eastern Xi;an city
A curved mirror at the Universum museum in Mexico City. The image splits between the convex and concave curves.
A large convex mirror. Distortions in the image increase with the viewing distance.
A dielectric mirror-stack works on the principle of thin-film interference. Each layer has a different refractive index, allowing each interface to produce a small amount of reflection. When the thickness of the layers is proportional to the chosen wavelength, the multiple reflections constructively interfere. Stacks may consist of a few to hundreds of individual coats.
A hot mirror used in a camera to reduce red eye
A mirror reflects light waves to the observer, preserving the wave's curvature and divergence, to form an image when focused through the lens of the eye. The angle of the impinging wave, as it traverses the mirror's surface, matches the angle of the reflected wave.
A mirror reverses an image in the direction of the normal angle of incidence. When the surface is at a 90°, horizontal angle from the object, the image appears inverted 180° along the vertical (right and left remain on the correct sides, but the image appears upside down), because the normal angle of incidence points down vertically toward the water.
A mirror reflects a real image (blue) back to the observer (red), forming a virtual image; a perceptual illusion that objects in the image are behind the mirror's surface and facing the opposite direction (purple). The arrows indicate the direction of the real and perceived images, and the reversal is analogous to viewing a movie with the film facing backwards, except the "screen" is the viewer's retina.
Four different mirrors, showing the difference in reflectivity. Clockwise from upper left: dielectric (80%), aluminum (85%), chrome (25%), and enhanced silver (99.9%). All are first-surface mirrors except the chrome mirror. The dielectric mirror reflects yellow light from the first-surface, but acts like an antireflection coating to purple light, thus produced a ghost reflection of the lightbulb from the second-surface.
Flatness errors, like rippled dunes across the surface, produced these artifacts, distortion, and low image quality in the far field reflection of a household mirror.
A dielectric, laser output-coupler that is 75–80% reflective between 500 and 600 nm, on a 3° wedge prism made of quartz glass. Left: The mirror is highly reflective to yellow and green but highly transmissive to red and blue. Right: The mirror transmits 25% of the 589 nm laser light. Because the smoke particles diffract more light than they reflect, the beam appears much brighter when reflecting back toward the observer.
Polishing the primary mirror for the Hubble Space Telescope. A deviation in the surface quality of approximately 4λ resulted in poor images initially, which was eventually compensated for using corrective optics.
A cheval glass
Reflections in a spherical convex mirror. The photographer is seen at top right.
A side-mirror on a racing car
Rear-view mirror
Convex mirror placed at the parking garage.
Parabolic troughs near Harper Lake in California
E-ELT mirror segments under test
Deformable thin-shell mirror. It is 1120 millimetres across but just 2 millimetres thick, making it much thinner than most glass windows.
A dielectric coated mirror used in a dye laser. The mirror is over 99% reflective at 550 nanometers, (yellow), but will allow most other colors to pass through.
A dielectric mirror used in tunable lasers. With a center wavelength of 600 nm and bandwidth of 100 nm, the coating is totally reflective to the orange construction paper, but only reflects the reddish hues from the blue paper.
A multi-facet mirror in the Kibble Palace conservatory, Glasgow, Scotland
Mirrored building in Manhattan - 2008
401 N. Wabash Ave. reflects the skyline along the Chicago River in downtown Chicago
Titian's Venus with a Mirror
Mirrors in interior design:
"Waiting room in the house of M.me B.", Art Deco project by Italian architect Arnaldo dell'Ira, Rome, 1939.
Grove Of Mirrors by Hilary Arnold Baker, Romsey
Chimneypiece and overmantel mirror, c. 1750 V&A Museum no. 738:1 to 3–1897
Glasses with mirrors – Prezi HQ
A bar mirror bearing the logo of Dunville's Whiskey.
An illustration from page 30 of Mjallhvít (Snow White) an 1852 Icelandic translation of the Grimm-version fairytale
Taijitu within a frame of trigrams and a demon-warding mirror. These charms are believed to frighten away evil spirits and to protect a dwelling from bad luck

There are optical mirrors such as mangin mirrors that are second surface mirrors (reflective coating on the rear surface) as part of their optical designs, usually to correct optical aberrations.

Cutaway drawing of an early photographic lens design, the Petzval Portrait

History of photographic lens design

Array of lens designs intended for photography.

Array of lens designs intended for photography.

Cutaway drawing of an early photographic lens design, the Petzval Portrait
Biconvex (or double convex) lens with aperture stop in front of it
Reversed achromatic lens
Petzval Portrait lens
Harrison & Schnitzer Globe
Dallmeyer Rapid-Rectilinear and Steinheil Aplanat
Dallmeyer and Miethe telephotos
Busch Bis-Telar
Zeiss Protar
Taylor, Taylor & Hobson Cooke Triplet
Zeiss Tessar
Ernemann Ernostar 10.5cm f/1.8
Zeiss Sonnar 50mm f/1.5
Development of the Double Gauss
Angénieux Retrofocus 35mm f/2.5
Zeiss Biogon 21mm f/4.5
Beck Hill Sky
Zeiss Tele-Mutar and Wide-Angle-Mutar
Schneider Retina-Xenon C system
Voigtländer-Zoomar 36-82mm f/2.8
Vivitar Series 1 70-210mm f/3.5
Fuji Fujinon-Z 43-75mm f/3.5-4.5
Sigma 21-35mm f/3.5-4
Kiron 28-210mm f/4-5.6 (on a Nikon FM2N)
Tokina SZ-X 70-210mm f/4-5.6 SD
Nippon Kogaku Nikkor-P Auto 10.5cm f/2.5
Nippon Kogaku Zoom-Nikkor Auto 43-86mm f/3.5
Example of a catadioptric lens that uses rear surfaced mangin mirrors (Minolta RF Rokkor-X 250mm f/5.6)
Nippon Kogaku Nikkor-N Auto 24mm f/2.8
Nippon Kogaku Nikkor 200mm f/2 ED IF
Minolta Varisoft Rokkor-X 85mm f/2.8
Kodak (Disc) aspheric 12.5mm f/2.8
Kodak Ektar 25mm f/1.9
Canon EF 400mm f/4 DO IS USM

Catadioptric photographic lenses (or "CAT" for short) combine many historical inventions such as the Catadioptric Mangin mirror (1874), Schmidt camera (1931), and the Maksutov telescope (1941) along with Laurent Cassegrain's Cassegrain telescope (1672).

A 150mm aperture Maksutov–Cassegrain telescope

Maksutov telescope

Catadioptric telescope design that combines a spherical mirror with a weakly negative meniscus lens in a design that takes advantage of all the surfaces being nearly "spherically symmetrical".

Catadioptric telescope design that combines a spherical mirror with a weakly negative meniscus lens in a design that takes advantage of all the surfaces being nearly "spherically symmetrical".

A 150mm aperture Maksutov–Cassegrain telescope
Dmitry Dmitrievich Maksutov
Light path in a typical "Gregory" or "spot" Maksutov–Cassegrain.
Meade ETX "spot" Maksutov–Cassegrain.
Light path in a typical Rutten Maksutov–Cassegrain.
Light path in a typical sub-aperture Maksutov–Cassegrain.

His notes from that time on the function of Mangin mirrors, an early catadioptric spotlight reflector consisting of negative lens with silvering on the back side, include a sketch of a Mangin mirror with the mirror part and the negative lens separated into two elements.