Mantle (geology)

mantleEarth's mantlemantlesupper mantlelower-mantlemantle meltingmantle-derivedbodycrustearth's crust
A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body bounded below by a core and above by a crust.wikipedia
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Crust (geology)

crustEarth's crustcrustal
A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body bounded below by a core and above by a crust. The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core.
It is usually distinguished from the underlying mantle by its chemical makeup; however, in the case of icy satellites, it may be distinguished based on its phase (solid crust vs. liquid mantle).

Planetary differentiation

differentiateddifferentiationdifferentiated body
Mantles are characteristic of planetary bodies that have undergone differentiation by density.
Such a process tends to create a core and mantle.

Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
All terrestrial planets (including Earth), a number of asteroids, and some planetary moons have mantles.
Earth's interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earth's magnetic field and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics.

Earth's mantle

mantleEarth mantle
The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core.
The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core.

Rock (geology)

stonerockrocks
Mantles are made of rock or ices, and are generally the largest and most massive layer of the planetary body.
This magma may be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planet's mantle or crust.

Terrestrial planet

terrestrial planetsrockyrocky planet
All terrestrial planets (including Earth), a number of asteroids, and some planetary moons have mantles.
All terrestrial planets in the Solar System have the same basic type of structure, such as a central metallic core, mostly iron, with a surrounding silicate mantle.

Planetary core

corecorescenter of the Earth
A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body bounded below by a core and above by a crust.
Using the chondritic reference model and combining known compositions of the crust and mantle, the unknown component, the composition of the inner and outer core, can be determined; 85% Fe, 5% Ni, 0.9% Cr, 0.25% Co, and all other refractory metals at very low concentration.

Mid-ocean ridge

spreading centermid-oceanic ridgespreading ridge
Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.
The production of new seafloor and oceanic lithosphere results from mantle upwelling in response to plate separation.

Earth's outer core

outer corecoreEarth's core
The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core.
Earth's outer core is a fluid layer about 2400 km thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.

Subduction

subduction zonesubductedsubducting
Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced to sink due to high gravitational potential energy into the mantle.

Oceanic crust

oceanicoceanic plateocean crust
Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.
The crust overlies the solidified and uppermost layer of the mantle.

Mercury (planet)

MercuryMercurioplanet Mercury
Mercury has a silicate mantle approximately 490 km thick, constituting only 28% of its mass. Venus's silicate mantle is approximately 2800 km thick, constituting around 70% of its mass. Mars's silicate mantle is approximately 1600 km thick, constituting ~74–88% of its mass, and may be represented by chassignite meteorites.
Surrounding the core is a 500 - 700 km mantle consisting of silicates.

Mars

MartianCoordinatesplanet Mars
Mercury has a silicate mantle approximately 490 km thick, constituting only 28% of its mass. Venus's silicate mantle is approximately 2800 km thick, constituting around 70% of its mass. Mars's silicate mantle is approximately 1600 km thick, constituting ~74–88% of its mass, and may be represented by chassignite meteorites.
The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but it appears to be dormant.

Partial melting

partial meltpartial meltsmelting
Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.
Melting in the mantle requires one of three possible events to occur: an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or the addition of volatiles to the system (a change in composition).

Volatiles

volatileicesice
Mantles are made of rock or ices, and are generally the largest and most massive layer of the planetary body.
Magma in the mantle and lower crust have a lot of volatiles within and water and carbon dioxide are not the only volatiles that volcanoes release.

Continental crust

continentalcrustcrustal
Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.
The average density of continental crust is about 2.83 g/cm 3, less dense than the ultramafic material that makes up the mantle, which has a density of around 3.3 g/cm 3.

Venus

Morning Starevening starplanet Venus
Mercury has a silicate mantle approximately 490 km thick, constituting only 28% of its mass. Venus's silicate mantle is approximately 2800 km thick, constituting around 70% of its mass. Mars's silicate mantle is approximately 1600 km thick, constituting ~74–88% of its mass, and may be represented by chassignite meteorites.
The similarity in size and density between Venus and Earth suggests they share a similar internal structure: a core, mantle, and crust.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
The silicate mantle of the Earth's moon is approximately 1300–1400 km thick, and is the source of mare basalts.
It has a geochemically distinct crust, mantle, and core.

Triton (moon)

TritonAndvari Triton
Titan and Triton each have a mantle made of ice or other solid volatile substances.
It has a surface of mostly frozen nitrogen, a mostly water-ice crust, an icy mantle and a substantial core of rock and metal.

Mantle convection

convectionconvectingmantle convecting
Mantle convection is the very slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior to the planet's surface.

Mesosphere (mantle)

Mesospheredeep mantlemesospheric mantle
In geology, the mesosphere refers to the part of the Earth's mantle below the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, but above the outer core.

Ganymede (moon)

GanymedeNicholson RegioAtmosphere of Ganymede
Jupiter's moons Io, Europa, and Ganymede have silicate mantles; Io's ~1100 km silicate mantle is overlain by a volcanic crust, Ganymede's ~1315 km thick silicate mantle is overlain by ~835 km of ice, and Europa's ~1165 km silicate mantle is overlain by ~85 km of ice and possibly liquid water.
Ganymede appears to be fully differentiated, with an internal structure consisting of an iron-sulfide–iron core, a silicate mantle and outer layers of water ice and liquid water.

Io (moon)

IoAtmosphere of IoIo torus
Jupiter's moons Io, Europa, and Ganymede have silicate mantles; Io's ~1100 km silicate mantle is overlain by a volcanic crust, Ganymede's ~1315 km thick silicate mantle is overlain by ~835 km of ice, and Europa's ~1165 km silicate mantle is overlain by ~85 km of ice and possibly liquid water.
Models based on the Voyager and Galileo measurements of Io's mass, radius, and quadrupole gravitational coefficients (numerical values related to how mass is distributed within an object) suggest that its interior is differentiated between a silicate-rich crust and mantle and an iron- or iron-sulfide-rich core.

Viscosity

viscouskinematic viscositydynamic viscosity
It is predominantly solid but in geological time it behaves as a viscous fluid.

Numerical modeling (geology)

numerical modelsnumerical modeling
Numerical modeling has become an important tool for tackling geological problems, especially for the parts of the Earth that are difficult to observe directly, such as the mantle and core.