Mantra

mantrasmantrammanteraMantra YogamantricbrahmaBuddhist mantraschantsGuru Mantraheard
A mantra (मन्त्र, English pronunciation ) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.wikipedia
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Meditation

meditatemeditativemeditating
Mantra meditation helps to induce an altered state of consciousness.
These include paying attention to the breath, to an idea or feeling (such as mettā (loving-kindness)), to a kōan, or to a mantra (such as in transcendental meditation), and single point meditation.

Sanskrit

Skt.classical SanskritSanskrit language
A mantra (मन्त्र, English pronunciation ) is a sacred utterance, a numinous sound, a syllable, word or phonemes, or group of words in Sanskrit believed by practitioners to have psychological and spiritual powers.
It continues to be widely used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants.

Gayatri Mantra

SavitriGayatriGayatri (mantra)
While some mantras may invoke individual gods or principles, fundamental mantras, like the 'Shanti Mantra, the 'Gayatri Mantra' and others all ultimately focus on the One reality. The Dharmasāstra claims Gāyatri mantra derived from Rig Veda verse 3.62.10, and the Purușasūkta mantra from Rig Veda verse 10.90 are most auspicious mantras for japa at sunrise and sunset; it is claimed to purify the mind and spirit.
The Gāyatrī, also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda (Mandala 3.62.10), dedicated to Savitr, the sun deity.

Shingon Buddhism

ShingonShingon BuddhistShingon sect
The Chinese translation is undefined, the Japanese on'yomi reading of the Chinese being shingon (which is also used as the proper name for the prominent esoteric Shingon sect).
The word "Shingon" is the Japanese reading of Zhēnyán "True Words", which in turn is the Chinese translation of the Sanskrit word "mantra".

Jainism

JainJainsJaina
Mantras now exist in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The traditional Jains, like Buddhists and Hindus, believe in the efficacy of mantras and that certain sounds and words are inherently auspicious, powerful and spiritual.

Frits Staal

J. F. StaalJ.F. StaalStaal, Frits
Scholars consider mantras to be older than 1000 BC. By the middle Vedic period—1000 BC to 500 BC—claims Frits Staal, mantras in Hinduism had developed into a blend of art and science.
Staal specialized in the study of Vedic ritual and mantras, and the scientific exploration of ritual and mysticism.

Shanti Mantras

Shantih shantih shantihOṃ Śāntiḥśānti mantra
While some mantras may invoke individual gods or principles, fundamental mantras, like the 'Shanti Mantra, the 'Gayatri Mantra' and others all ultimately focus on the One reality.
The Shanti Mantras or "Peace Mantras" or Pancha Shanti are Hindu prayers for Peace (Shanti) found in Upanishads.

Transcendental Meditation technique

Transcendental Meditationyogic flyingmeditation
The Transcendental Meditation technique, also known as 'TM', uses mantras that are assigned to the practitioner to be used as thought sound only, not chanted, without connection to any meaning or idea.
The Transcendental Meditation technique or TM is a form of silent mantra meditation, developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.

Mantram Handbook

Mantram Handbook: a practical guide to choosing your mantram and calming your mindThis method of mantram repetition
This method of mantram repetition, and the larger program, was developed for use in any major faith tradition, or outside all traditions.
The Mantram Handbook describes methods of using a mantram — sometimes called a Holy Name — in daily living.

Japamala

akshamalamalajapa mala
Japa is assisted by malas (bead necklaces) containing 108 beads and a head bead (sometimes referred to as the 'meru', or 'guru' bead); the devotee using his/her fingers to count each bead as he/she repeats the chosen mantra.
Malas are used for keeping count while reciting, chanting, or mentally repeating a mantra or the name or names of God.

Hinduism

HinduHindusHindu religion
Mantras now exist in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Other major life-stage events, such as rituals after death, include the yajña and chanting of Vedic mantras.

Namokar Mantra

Ṇamōkāra mantraJain monksnamaskār
Some examples of Jain mantras are Bhaktamara Stotra, Uvasagharam Stotra, etc. But the greatest is said to be the Namokar or Navkar Mantra.
Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most significant mantra in Jainism.

Sikhism

SikhSikhsSikh religion
Mantras now exist in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
While the Guru Granth Sahib acknowledges the Vedas, Puranas and Quran, it does not imply a syncretic bridge between Hinduism and Islam, but emphasises focusing on nitnem banis like Japu (repeating mantra of the divine Name of God – Vaheguru), instead of Muslim practices such as circumcision or praying on a carpet, or Hindu rituals such as wearing thread or praying in a river.

Ganesha

Lord GaneshaGaneshGanesa
These are derived from the name of a deity; for example, Durga yields dum and Ganesha yields gam.
Ganesha is identified with the Hindu mantra Om, also spelled Aum.

Shurangama Mantra

Śūraṅgama MantraŚūraṅgama
Along with the ten mantras, the Great Compassion Mantra, the Shurangama Mantra of the Shurangama, Heart Sutra and various forms of nianfo are also chanted.
The Shurangama or Śūraṅgama mantra is a dhāraṇī or long mantra of Buddhist practice in China, Japan and Korea.

Vedas

VedicvedaVedic literature
Scholars consider mantras to be older than 1000 BC. By the middle Vedic period—1000 BC to 500 BC—claims Frits Staal, mantras in Hinduism had developed into a blend of art and science.
The Samhitas (Sanskrit, "collection"), are collections of metric texts ("mantras"). There are four "Vedic" Samhitas: the Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and Atharva-Veda, most of which are available in several recensions (). In some contexts, the term Veda is used to refer to these Samhitas. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts, apart from the Rigvedic hymns, which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BCE, dating to c. the 12th to 10th centuries BCE. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in Bloomfield's Vedic Concordance (1907) consists of some 89,000 padas (metrical feet), of which 72,000 occur in the four Samhitas.

Om

Aumpranava
At its simplest, the word ॐ (Aum, Om) serves as a mantra.
Om came to be used as a standard utterance at the beginning of mantras, chants or citations taken from the Vedas.

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Yoga SutrasYoga SūtrasYogasutras
According to this school, any shloka from holy Hindu texts like the Vedas, Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Sutra, even the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Durga saptashati or Chandi is a mantra, thus can be part of the japa, repeated to achieve a numinous effect.
The mind is fixed on a mantra, or one's breath/navel/tip of tongue/any place, or an object one wants to observe, or a concept/idea in one's mind.

Surat Shabd Yoga

Surat Shabda Yoga
The spiritual exercises of Surat Shabda Yoga include simran (repetition, particularly silent repetition of a mantra given at initiation), dhyan (concentration, viewing, or contemplation, particularly on the Inner Master), and bhajan (listening to the inner sounds of the Shabda or the Shabda Master).
The sadhanas include simran (repetition, particularly silent repetition of a mantra given at initiation), dhyan (concentration, viewing, or contemplation, particularly on the Inner Master), and bhajan (listening to the inner sounds of the Shabd). The mantra is Guru Manter.

Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī

Great Compassion MantraNīlakaṇṭhaGreat Compassion
Along with the ten mantras, the Great Compassion Mantra, the Shurangama Mantra of the Shurangama, Heart Sutra and various forms of nianfo are also chanted.
Different versions of this dhāraṇī, of varying length, exist; the shorter version as transliterated into Chinese characters by Indian monk Bhagavaddharma in the 7th century enjoys a high degree of popularity in East Asian Mahayana Buddhism - especially in Chinese Buddhism - comparable to that of the six-syllable mantra Oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ, which is also synonymous with Avalokiteśvara.

Purusha Sukta

PurushaPuruṣa sūktaHymn of the Cosmic Man
The Dharmasāstra claims Gāyatri mantra derived from Rig Veda verse 3.62.10, and the Purușasūkta mantra from Rig Veda verse 10.90 are most auspicious mantras for japa at sunrise and sunset; it is claimed to purify the mind and spirit.
In the verses following, it is held that Purusha through a sacrifice of himself, brings forth the avian, forest-dwelling and domestic animals, the three Vedas, the metres (of the mantras).

Tantra

TantricTantriktantrism
Mantras serve a central role in tantra.
Mantras: reciting syllables, words, and phrases

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddha
Mantras now exist in various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The practice of using mantras was adopted from Hinduism, where they were first used in the Vedas.

Bhajan

bhajansdevotional songsbhajana
The spiritual exercises of Surat Shabda Yoga include simran (repetition, particularly silent repetition of a mantra given at initiation), dhyan (concentration, viewing, or contemplation, particularly on the Inner Master), and bhajan (listening to the inner sounds of the Shabda or the Shabda Master).
A modern Bhajan has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad, thumri or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas.

Prayer

prayprayerspraying
The Hindu philosophy behind this is the premise that before existence and beyond existence is only One reality, Brahman, and the first manifestation of Brahman expressed as Om. For this reason, Om is considered as a foundational idea and reminder, and thus is prefixed and suffixed to all Hindu prayers.
In both Buddhism and Hinduism, the repetition of mantras is closely related to the practice of repetitive prayer in Western religion (rosary, Jesus prayer).