Manx language

ManxManx GaeliclanguageManx-languageGaelgManx Gaelic languageManx Gaelic termGaelic languageGaelic termglv
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.wikipedia
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Isle of Man

ManxMannIsle of Mann
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.
Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged.

Goidelic languages

GaelicGoidelicGaelic languages
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.
There are three modern Goidelic languages: Irish (Gaeilge), Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) and Manx (Gaelg), the last of which died out in the 20th century but has since been revived to some degree.

Scottish Gaelic

GaelicScots GaelicGaelic language
The sister languages of Irish and Scottish Gaelic use Gaeilge (dialect variants Gaoluinn, Gaedhlag, Gaelge and Gaelic) and Gàidhlig, respectively, for their languages.
As a Goidelic language, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish.

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
The sister languages of Irish and Scottish Gaelic use Gaeilge (dialect variants Gaoluinn, Gaedhlag, Gaelge and Gaelic) and Gàidhlig, respectively, for their languages.
Irish has been the dominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx respectively.

Celtic languages

CelticCeltic languageQ-Celtic
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.
The Cornish and Manx languages went extinct in modern times.

Manx English

Anglo-ManxManx dialectdialect
The term "Manx Gaelic" is often used, for example when discussing the relationship between the three Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx) or to avoid confusion with Anglo-Manx, the form of English spoken on the island.
It has many borrowings from Manx, a Goidelic language, and it differs widely from any other variety of English, including dialects from other areas in which Celtic languages are or were spoken, such as Welsh English and Hiberno-English.

Language revitalization

Language revivalrevitalizationrevival
Manx has been the subject of language revival efforts; in 2015, around 1,800 people had varying levels of second language conversational ability.
With regard to the then-moribund Manx language, the scholar T. F. O'Rahilly stated, "When a language surrenders itself to foreign idiom, and when all its speakers become bilingual, the penalty is death."

Old Irish

Old GaelicOldearly Irish
Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century.
Old Irish is thus forebear to Modern Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic.

Ned Maddrell

1974
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.
Edward "Ned" Maddrell (September 1877 – 27 December 1974) was a fisherman from the Isle of Man who, at the time of his death, was the last surviving native speaker of the Manx language.

Manannán mac Lir

Manannan mac LirManannanManannán
The island is named after the Irish god Manannán mac Lir, thus Ellan Vannin (Irish Oileán Mhannanáin) 'Mannanán's Island'.
His name is spelt Manandán in Old Irish, Manannán in modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic, and Mannan in Manx Gaelic.

Manx people

ManxManxmanManxmen
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.
The 20th century saw a revival of interest in Manx music and dance, and in the Manx language, though the last native (first language) speaker of Manx died in the 1970s.

Middle Irish

GaelicMiddle Irish languageMedieval Gaelic
It is possible that Old Irish did not survive the conquest and domination of the island by Norse-speaking Vikings, so that modern Manx language may represent a later, revived form (derived from Middle Irish).
The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Manx (native name Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced or or ), also known as Manx Gaelic, and also historically spelled Manks, is a member of the Goidelic (Gaelic) language branch of the Celtic languages of the Indo-European language family; it was spoken as a first language by some of the Manx people on the Isle of Man until the death of the last native speaker, Ned Maddrell, in 1974.

History of the Isle of Man

revestmenthistoryManx history
On the Isle of Man, the transition from Manx Brythonic to Old Irish (or Manx Gaelic) may have been gradual and appears to have occurred after speakers of Primitive Irish settled on the Isle of Man, in large numbers, from about the 5th century AD.
The transition between Manx Brythonic (a Brythonic language like modern Welsh) and Manx Gaelic (a Goidelic language like modern Irish Gaelic and Scottish Gaelic) may have been gradual.

Culture Vannin

Manx Heritage Foundation
Culture Vannin employs a Manx Language Development Officer (Manx: Yn Greinneyder) to encourage and facilitate the use of the language.
Culture Vannin is the trading name for the Manx Heritage Foundation, established in 1982 by the Isle of Man Government to promote Manx culture, heritage and language.

Onchan

miniature railwayOnchan DistrictOnchan District Act 1986
These were spread roughly uniformly over the island: in Douglas 566 people professed an ability to speak, read or write Manx; 179 in Peel, 146 in Onchan, and 149 in Ramsey.
In Manx the name for the village is Kione Droghad meaning "bridge end".

Brittonic languages

BrythonicBrittonicBrythonic languages
The earliest known language of the Isle of Man was a form of Brythonic (like modern Welsh, Cornish and Breton).
Brittonic languages were probably spoken prior to the Roman invasion at least in the majority of Great Britain south of the rivers Forth and Clyde, though the Isle of Man later had a Goidelic language, Manx.

Manx literature

ManxLiterature of the Isle of ManManx poetry
Little secular Manx literature has been preserved.
Manx literature is literature in the Manx language.

Henry Jenner

Kitty LeeHis son
Henry Jenner estimated in 1874 that about 30% of the population habitually spoke Manx (12,340 out of a population of 41,084).
In 1874 Henry Jenner continued his interest in Celtic languages, and in 1875 he read a paper to the Philological Society in London, his subject being the Manx language.

John Phillips (bishop of Sodor and Man)

John Phillips
The Book of Common Prayer was translated by John Phillips, the Welsh-born Bishop of Sodor and Man (1605–33).
His most notable contribution to society was the writing down of the Manx Language.

Bunscoill Ghaelgagh

Gaelic medium education on the Isle of Man
The Bunscoill Ghaelgagh, a primary school at St John's, has 67 children, as of September 2016, who receive nearly all of their education through the medium of the language.
Bunscoill Ghaelgagh is a Manx-language primary school in St John's, Isle of Man.

Brian Stowell

Dr. Brian Stowell
The Manx Language Unit was formed in 1992, consisting of three members and headed by Manx Language Officer Brian Stowell, a language enthusiast and fluent speaker, "which was put in charge of all aspects of Manx language teaching and accreditation in schools."
He is considered one of the primary people behind the revival of the Manx language.

Mooinjer veggey

fairies
The playgroup organisation Mooinjer Veggey, which operates the Bunscoill Ghaelgagh, runs a series of preschool groups that introduce the language.
Mooinjer veggey is the Manx for little people, a term used for fairies in Gaelic lore.

John (given name)

JohnJohn (first name)John (name)
Traditional Manx given names are once again becoming common on the island, especially Moirrey and Voirrey (Mary, properly pronounced similarly to the Scottish Moira, but often mispronounced as Moiree/Voiree when used as a given name by non-Manx speakers), Illiam (William), Orry (from the Manx king Godred Crovan of Norse origin), Breeshey (also Breesha) (Bridget), Aalish (also Ealish) (Alice), Juan (Jack), Ean (Ian), Joney (John), Fenella (Fionnuala), Pherick (Patrick) and Freya (from the Norse goddess) remain popular.
The Breton form of this name is Yann, the Manx is Juan, and the Cornish is Yowann.

Irish phonology

Irishslender Rbroad
Irish phonology) and most dialects of Scottish Gaelic, Manx has changed the historical consonant clusters to.
The Irish language shares a number of phonological characteristics with its nearest linguistic relatives, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, as well as with Hiberno-English, with which it is in the closest language contact.