Maoism

MaoistMaoistsMao Zedong ThoughtMao Tse-Tung Thoughtpro-ChinaMaoist theoryMaoMaoist movementMarxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong ThoughtMarxism–Leninism-Maoism
Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought, is the Chinese communist variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the People's Republic of China.wikipedia
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Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought, is the Chinese communist variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the People's Republic of China.
Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, his theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism.

Marxism–Leninism

Marxism-LeninismMarxist-LeninistMarxist–Leninist
Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought, is the Chinese communist variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the People's Republic of China. In its post-revolutionary period, Mao Zedong Thought is defined in the CPC's Constitution as "Marxism–Leninism applied in a Chinese context", synthesized by Mao and China's "first-generation leaders". Many of the foreign parties that were fraternal parties aligned with the Chinese government before 1975 either disbanded, abandoned the new Chinese government entirely, or even renounced Marxism–Leninism and developed into non-communist, social democratic parties.
In that vein, the History of the People's Republic of China represents Mao Zedong Thought (urban Marxism–Leninism adapted to pre-industrial China) as Mao Zedong's fundamental up-dating and adaptation of Leninism to Chinese conditions, in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideologic orthodoxy is secondary; which made the Thought of Mao Zedong the official state ideology of the PRC.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
From the 1950s until the Chinese economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping in the late 1970s, Maoism was the political and military ideology of the Communist Party of China and of Maoist revolutionary movements throughout the world.
According to the party constitution, the CPC adheres to Marxism–Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, socialism with Chinese characteristics, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Three Represents, the Scientific Outlook on Development, and Xi Jinping Thought.

Maurice Meisner

Meisner, MMeisner, MauriceMaurice J. Meisner
These skeptical iconoclasts formed a new segment of Chinese society, a modern intelligentsia whose arrival—or as historian of China Maurice Meisner would label it, their defection—heralded the beginning of the destruction of the gentry as a social class in China.
His study of the Chinese Revolution and the People's Republic was in conjunction with his strong interest in socialist ideology, Marxism, and Maoism in particular.

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
By the turn of the 20th century, a proportionately small yet socially significant cross-section of China's traditional elite (i.e. landlords and bureaucrats) found themselves increasingly skeptical of the efficacy and even the moral validity of Confucianism.
They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings; some of these new ideologies include the "Three Principles of the People" with the establishment of the Republic of China, and then Maoism under the People's Republic of China.

People's war

protracted people's warPeople’s warChinese guerrilla resistance
Holding that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun", Maoism emphasizes the "revolutionary struggle of the vast majority of people against the exploiting classes and their state structures", which Mao termed a "people's war". It was founded in 1965 with Akram Yari as its first leader, advocating the overthrow of the then-current order by means of people's war.
People's war, also called protracted people's war, is a Maoist military strategy.

Yan'an Rectification Movement

Cheng FengRectification campaign1942
These included the consolidation of Mao Zedong's paramount role within the CCP, especially from 1942 to 1944, and the adoption of a party constitution that endorsed Marxist-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought as guiding ideologies.

Cultural Revolution

Chinese Cultural RevolutionGreat Proletarian Cultural RevolutionCulture Revolution
The theory of the Cultural Revolution states that the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat does not wipe out bourgeois ideology—the class-struggle continues and even intensifies during socialism, therefore a constant struggle against these ideologies and their social roots must be conducted.
Launched by Mao Zedong, then Chairman of the Communist Party of China, its stated goal was to preserve Chinese Communism by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society, and to re-impose Mao Zedong Thought (known outside China as Maoism) as the dominant ideology in the Communist Party of China (CPC).

On Contradiction

On Contradiction (Mao Zedong)contradictionContradictions among the people
In two major essays, On Contradiction and On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, he adopts the positivist-empiricist idea (shared by Engels) that contradiction is present in matter itself and thus also in the ideas of the brain.
Along with On Practice it forms the philosophical underpinnings of the political ideology that would later become Maoism.

Socialism with Chinese characteristics

Chinese socialismsocialistChinese Marxism
Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought, is the Chinese communist variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the People's Republic of China.
His successor's rejection of this view according to A. James Gregor has thwarted the ideological continuity of Maoism—officially Mao Zedong Thought.

Hoxhaism

HoxhaistAlbaniaHoxhaists
In 1978, this led to the Sino-Albanian split when Albanian leader Enver Hoxha denounced Deng as a revisionist and formed Hoxhaism as an anti-revisionist form of Marxism.
Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.

Enver Hoxha

HoxhaEnver HohxaEnver Halil Hoxha
In 1978, this led to the Sino-Albanian split when Albanian leader Enver Hoxha denounced Deng as a revisionist and formed Hoxhaism as an anti-revisionist form of Marxism.
After his break with Maoism in the 1976–1978 period, numerous Maoist parties around the world declared themselves Hoxhaist.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
Maoism is a form of Marxism–Leninism associated with Chinese leader Mao Zedong.

Hua Guofeng

Chairman HuaGuofengHua Kuo-feng
Thousands of Maoists were arrested in the Hua Guofeng period after 1976.
However, because of his insistence on continuing the Maoist line and refusal to adopt large-scale reforms, he faced resistance in the upper echelons of the party.

Three Worlds Theory

Theory of the Three Worldstri-polar geopoliticsThird World
Three Worlds Theory states that during the Cold War two imperialist states formed the "first world"—the United States and the Soviet Union.
As political science, the Three Worlds Theory is a Maoist interpretation and geopolitical reformulation of international relations, which is different from the Three-World Model, created by the demographer Alfred Sauvy, wherein the First World comprises the US, Great Britain, and their allies; the Second World comprises the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, and their allies; and the Third World comprises the economically underdeveloped countries and the countries, including the 120 countries of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

Generations of Chinese leadership

Generations of leadershipfourth generation6th Generation of Chinese leadership
In its post-revolutionary period, Mao Zedong Thought is defined in the CPC's Constitution as "Marxism–Leninism applied in a Chinese context", synthesized by Mao and China's "first-generation leaders".
The guiding political ideology from the first generations were general principles of Marxism and Mao Zedong Thought.

History of communism

communist movementInternational Communist MovementWorld Communist Movement
From 1962 onwards, the challenge to the Soviet hegemony in the world communist movement made by the CPC resulted in various divisions in communist parties around the world.
Despite retaining a nominal commitment to communism, China has essentially ceased to be governed by the principles of Maoism, reverting to an authoritarian regime with a mixed economy.

On Practice

Mao elaborates further on this theme in the essay On Practice, "on the relation between knowledge and practice, between knowing and doing".
On Practice was written as a part of this mission, for it gave Mao a more legitimate claim to lead by creating the basis for his communist philosophy, Maoism.

Marxism

MarxistMarxistsMarxist ideology
In the People's Republic of China, the Maoist government undertook the Cultural Revolution from 1966 through to 1976 to purge Chinese society of capitalist elements and achieve socialism.

Social democracy

social democraticsocial-democraticsocial democrat
Many of the foreign parties that were fraternal parties aligned with the Chinese government before 1975 either disbanded, abandoned the new Chinese government entirely, or even renounced Marxism–Leninism and developed into non-communist, social democratic parties.
Democratic socialism is generally defined as an anti-Leninist and anti-Stalinist left-wing big tent that opposes authoritarian and statist forms of socialism, rejects self-described socialist states as well as Marxism–Leninism and its derivatives such as Stalinism and Maoism.

Akram Yari

It was founded in 1965 with Akram Yari as its first leader, advocating the overthrow of the then-current order by means of people's war.
Akram Yari was a Maoist political organizer in Afghanistan.

Seek truth from facts

seeking truth from factsSeeking truths from facts
Although Mao Zedong Thought nominally remains the state ideology, Deng's admonition to "seek truth from facts" means that state policies are judged on their practical consequences and in many areas the role of ideology in determining policy has thus been considerably reduced.
The slogan became a key element of Maoism, first quoted by Mao Zedong during a speech at the Sixth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in 1938, in reference to pragmatism.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Mao drew from the writings of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, and Joseph Stalin in elaborating his theory.
In the political realm, these tendencies include Leninism, Marxism–Leninism, Trotskyism, Maoism, Luxemburgism and libertarian Marxism.

Shining Path

Sendero LuminosoCommunist Party of PeruCommunist Party of Peru (Shining Path)
Later, Latin American Communists such as Peru's Shining Path also embraced the tenets of Maoism.