Mapuche

AraucanianMapuche peopleMapuchesAraucanoAraucaniansAraucanian IndiansLafkenchesMapuche IndiansAraucaniaChiquillanes
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.wikipedia
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Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.

Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
The second group are advanced hunters and food gatherers which include the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the center-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading from Chile—and the Kom and Wichi in the north.

Toqui

tokiToqui (leader)
In times of war, Mapuche would unite in larger groupings and elect a toki (meaning "axe, axe-bearer") to lead them.
Toqui (or Toki) (Mapudungun for axe or axe-bearer) is a title conferred by the Mapuche (an indigenous Chilean people) on those chosen as leaders during times of war.

Araucanía (historic region)

AraucaníaAraucaniaAraucanía region
Mapuches are particularly concentrated in Araucanía. But Mapuche society in Araucanía and Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late nineteenth century.
Araucanía or Araucana was the Spanish name given to the region of Chile inhabited by the Mapuche peoples known as the Moluche (also known as Araucanos by the Spanish) in the 18th century.

Araucanization of Patagonia

AraucanizationAraucanizedassimilated
The Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche language and some of their culture, in what came to be called Araucanization.
The Araucanization of Patagonia (Araucanización de la Patagonia) was the process of the expansion of Mapuche culture, influence, and its Mapudungun language from Araucanía across the Andes into the plains of Patagonia.

Mapuche conflict

conflict over Mapuche civil rightsConflict over Mapuche land rightscontroversial
Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina and in Chile.
The Mapuche Conflict is a collective name for the revival and reorganization of Mapuche communities for greater autonomy, recognition of rights, and the recovery of land since the Chilean transition to democracy.

Conquest of Chile

Spanish conquestconquestarrival of the Spanish
At the time of Spanish arrival the Araucanian Mapuche inhabited the valleys between the Itata and Toltén rivers.
However the largest indigenous population were the Mapuches living south of the Inca borders in the area spanning from Itata River to Chiloé Archipelago.

Tehuelche people

TehuelcheTehuelchesAonikenk
At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups.
According to the most wide-spread view, the word Tehuelche comes from the Mapuche term chewel che, which would mean “brave people,” “rugged people,” or “barren land people.” Another version suggests that it could be derived from one of their factions, the Tueshens, plus the Mapuche word “che” meaning ‘people’ or ‘peoples.’

Conquest of the Desert

Manuel Namuncurácampaigns of the Argentine ArmyConquista del Desierto
But Mapuche society in Araucanía and Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late nineteenth century.
Argentine troops killed more than 1,000 Mapuche and displaced over 15,000 more from their traditional lands.

Lonko

loncochieftainLongkos
The Mapuche traditional economy is based on agriculture; their traditional social organization consists of extended families, under the direction of a lonko or chief.
A lonko or lonco (from Mapudungun longko, literally "head"), is a chief of several Mapuche communities.

Picunche

MapochoesPicunche peopleMapuche groups
Mapuche in the Spanish-ruled areas, specially the Picunche, mingled with Spanish during colonial times losing their indigenous identity.
The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking Chilean people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.

Huilliche people

HuillicheHuillichesMapuche-Huilliche
The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile.

Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires, ArgentinaCapital federalCity of Buenos Aires
Many have migrated to the Santiago and Buenos Aires area for economic opportunities.
Amongst the 61,876 persons who are of indigenous origin, 15.9% are Quechua people, 15.9% are Guaraní, 15.5% are Aymara and 11% are Mapuche.

Lautaro

Lautaro (toqui)
– April 29, 1557) was a young Araucanian toqui known for leading the indigenous resistance against Spanish conquest in Chile and developing the tactics that would continue to be employed by the Mapuche during the long-running War of Arauco.

Arauco, Chile

AraucoSan Felipe de AraucanAraucania
The name was likely derived from the placename rag ko (Spanish Arauco), meaning "clayey water".
The Spanish settlements founded here during the Conquest of Chile were destroyed on numerous occasions by the Mapuche during the Arauco War.

Ranquel

RanquelesRankulcheRanquele
At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups.
With Puelche, Pehuenche and also Patagones from the Günün-a-Küna group origins, they were conquered by the Mapuche.

Caupolicán

Caupolican
Caupolicán (meaning ‘polished flint’ (queupu) or ‘blue quartz stone’ (Kallfulikan) in Mapudungun) was a toqui or war leader of the Mapuche people, who led the resistance of his people against the Spanish Conquistadors who invaded the territory of today's Chile during the sixteenth century.

Battle of the Maule

a battlelast Inca push
Troops of the Inca Empire are reported to have reached the Maule River and had a battle with the Mapuches between the Maule River and the Itata River there.
The Battle of the Maule was fought between a coalition of Mapuche people of Chile and the Inca Empire of Peru.

Chiloé Archipelago

ChiloéChiloeArchipelago of Chiloé
Their influence once extended from the Aconcagua River to the Chiloé Archipelago and spread later eastward to the Argentine pampa.
A theory postulated by chronicler José Pérez García holds the Cuncos settled in Chiloé Island in Pre-Hispanic times as consequence of a push from more northern Huilliches who in turn were being displaced by Mapuches.

Puelche

Puelche peoplePuelchesGuennaken
At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche, Ranquel and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups.
The name "Puelche" was not native, but was given to them by the Mapuche.

Patagonia

PatagonianChilean PatagoniaArgentine Patagonia
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
Towards the end of the 16th century, Mapuche-speaking agriculturalists penetrated the western Andes and from there across into the eastern plains and down to the far south.

Itata River

ItataItata ValleyRío Itata
At the time of Spanish arrival the Araucanian Mapuche inhabited the valleys between the Itata and Toltén rivers. Troops of the Inca Empire are reported to have reached the Maule River and had a battle with the Mapuches between the Maule River and the Itata River there.
Until the Conquest of Chile, the Itata was the natural limit between the Mapuche, located to the south, and Picunche, to the north.

Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginal
Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina and in Chile.
In Chile there are indigenous tribes like the Mapuches in the Center-South and the Aymaras in the North; also the Rapa Nui indigenous to Easter Island are a Polynesian tribe.

Pelantaro

PelantaruPelentaru
In 1598 a party of warriors from Purén led by Pelantaro, who were returning south from a raid in Chillán area, ambushed Martín García Óñez de Loyola and his troops while they rested without taking any precautions against attack.
Pelantaro or Pelantarú (from the Mapuche pelontraru or "Shining Caracara") was one of the vice toquis of Paillamachu, the toqui or military leader of the Mapuche people during the Mapuche uprising in 1598.

Pedro de Valdivia

Pedro ValdiviaLa muerte de Pedro de ValdiviaPedro de '''Valdivia
In 1541 Pedro de Valdivia reached Chile from Cuzco and founded Santiago.
He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Mapuche.