A casta painting of a Spanish man and an Indigenous woman with a Mestizo child
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
A casta painting by Miguel Cabrera. Here he shows a Spanish (español) father, Mestiza (mixed Spanish–American Indian) mother, and their Castiza daughter.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, 1750. The top left grouping is of an indio and an española, with their Mestizo son. This is the only known casta painting with an indio man and española woman.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Casta painting showing 16 hierarchically arranged, mixed-race groupings. The top left grouping uses cholo as a synonym for mestizo. Ignacio Maria Barreda, 1777. Real Academia Española de la Lengua, Madrid.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
A statue of Gonzalo Guerrero, who adopted the Maya way of life and fathered the first mestizo children in Mexico and in the mainland Americas (the only mestizos before were those born in the Caribbean to Spanish men and Indigenous Caribbean women).
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Chavela Vargas Mixed-Costa Rican Born - Singer
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Keylor Navas Mixed-Costa Rican - Real Madrid Goalkeeper
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Painting of the First Independence Movement celebration in San Salvador, El Salvador. At the center, José Matías Delgado, a Salvadoran priest and doctor known as El Padre de la Patria Salvadoreña (The Father of the Salvadoran Fatherland), alongside his nephew Manuel José Arce, future Salvadoran president of the Federal Republic of Central America.
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Mestizo, Mestiza, Mestizo Sample of a Peruvian casta painting, showing intermarriage within a casta category.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, former President of East Timor.
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
Brazilian footballer Ronaldo
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
Statue of José Vasconcelos in Mexico City
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Español, India, Mestizo. José Joaquín Magón. 18th c Mexico
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Casta painting. "Spanish and Indian produce Mestizo", 1780.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Español, India, Mestizo.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Castizo, Mestiza, Chamizo. Miguel Cabrera 1763.
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Mulatto and Mestiza, produce Mulatto, he is Torna Atrás [throwback]" by Juan Rodríguez Juárez
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Mestizo, India, Coyote. Miguel Cabrera 1763.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche
De mestizo e India, sale coiote (From a Mestizo man and an Indigenous American woman, a Coyote is begotten).
Mestizo, Albarazada, Barcina.
1919 Barrientos family in Baracoa, Cuba, headed by an ex Spanish soldier and his Indigenous wife
The dance group Joyas Mestizas ("Mestiza jewels") performs at the Fiestas Patrias Parade, South Park, Seattle, 2017

Mapuche in the Spanish-ruled areas, especially the Picunche, mingled with Spanish during the colonial period, forming a mestizo population that lost its indigenous identity.

- Mapuche

In Chile, from the time the Spanish soldiers with Pedro de Valdivia entered northern Chile, a process of 'mestizaje' began where Spaniards began to intermarry and reproduce with the local bellicose Mapuche population of Indigenous Chileans to produce an overwhelmingly Mestizo population during the first generation in all of the cities they founded.

- Mestizo
A casta painting of a Spanish man and an Indigenous woman with a Mestizo child

2 related topics



Country in the western part of South America.

Country in the western part of South America.

Lautaro, toqui and hero of the Arauco war
Pedro de Valdivia, conqueror of Chile
Bernardo O'Higgins, Libertador and the Supreme Director of Chile
The Battle of Iquique on 21 May 1879. The victory of Chile in the War of the Pacific allowed its expansion into new territories.
Chile's Almirante Latorre dreadnought in 1921
Salvador Allende
Fighter jets bombing the Presidential Palace of La Moneda during the Chilean coup of 1973
Augusto Pinochet
Five presidents of Chile since Transition to democracy (1990–2022), celebrating the Bicentennial of Chile
The Palacio de La Moneda in downtown Santiago
The Palace of Justice in Santiago
Chile's territorial gains after the War of the Pacific in 1879–83
Karel Doorman-class frigate
F-16 Fighting Falcon
Chile map of Köppen climate classification.
Araucaria araucana trees in Conguillío National Park.
Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), the national bird of Chile.
Topographic map of Chile. To view maps based on SRTM topographic relief of the country, see here.
Osorno Volcano and the Petrohué River
Nef Glacier and the Plomo Lake
General Carrera lake, the largest in the country.
Population of Chile from 1820, projected up to 2050
Mapuche women of Tirúa
Chileans with flags of Chile
Chilean students in Santiago de Chile
German immigrants in southern Chile
Neoclassical Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral
Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (PUC).
FONASA is the funding branch of the Ministry of Health.
A proportional representation of Chile exports, 2019
Chilean (blue) and average Latin American (orange) GDP per capita (1980–2017)
The financial district in Santiago de Chile
Santiago Stock Exchange
Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world
Vineyard in the Casablanca Valley
Elqui Valley, wine and pisco region
Puerto Varas
The Santiago Metro is South America's most extensive metro system
Torre Entel in Santiago de Chile, with the Andes mountains in the background
La Zamacueca, by Manuel Antonio Caro.
Chilean asado (barbecue) and marraqueta
Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos
The Chilean national polo team with President Michelle Bachelet and the trophy of the 2015 World Polo Championship.

Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.

The first general census was conducted by the government of Agustín de Jáuregui between 1777 and 1778; it indicated that the population consisted of 259,646 inhabitants: 73.5% of European descent, 7.9% mestizos, 8.6% indigenous peoples and 9.8% blacks.

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples.

The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples.

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)
Diné boy, in the desert of Monument Valley, AZ, United States of America. The Three Sisters buttes are visible in the background.
Mapuche man, in Chile
Mayan women in Antigua Guatemala, Central America.
Language families of Indigenous peoples in North America: shown across present-day Canada, Greenland, the United States, and northern Mexico
The Kogi, descendants of the Tairona, are a culturally-intact, largely pre-Columbian society. The Tairona were one of the few indigenous American civilizations that were not fully conquered.
"The Maiden", one of the discovered Llullaillaco mummies. A Preserved Inca human sacrifice from around the year 1500.
Cultural areas of North America at time of European contact
Eight Crow Nation prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887
Drawing accompanying text in Book XII of the 16th-century Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585), showing Nahuas of conquest-era central Mexico suffering from smallpox
Indigenous people at a Brazilian farm plantation in Minas Gerais ca. 1824
A bison hunt depicted by George Catlin
Ancient mesoamerican engraving of maize, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico
Main indigenous language families of South America (except Quechua, Aymaran, and Mapuche).
Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico
Textile art by Julia Pingushat (Inuk, Arviat, Nunavut, Canada), wool, embroidery floss, 1995
Chimu culture feather pectoral, feathers, reed, copper, silver, hide, cordage, ca. 1350–1450 CE
Indigenous man playing a panpipe, antara or siku
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Bill Reid's sculpture The Raven and the First Men (collection of the Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver). The Raven represents the Trickster figure common to many mythologies.
Some Inuit people on a traditional qamutiik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada
Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk, Greenland
Wixarika (Huichol) woman from Zacatecas
Tenejapa Carnival with Tzeltal people, Chiapas
Rarámuri marathon in Urique.
Choctaw artist from Oklahoma
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley, Arizona
Indigenous Salvadoran Pipil women dancing in the traditional Procession of Palms, Panchimalco in El Salvador
Maya women from Guatemala
A Mayan woman
Owners of a roadside cafe near Cachi, Argentina
Indigenous woman in traditional dress, near Cochabamba, Bolivia
Indigenous man of Terena tribe from Brazil
Mapuche man and woman. The Mapuche make up about 85% of Indigenous population that live in Chile.
Guambía people relaxing in Colombia
Shaman of the Cofán people from the Ecuadorian Amazon Ecuador Amazonian forest
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Cuzco Region, Peru
A Warao family from Venezuela traveling in their canoe
Evo Morales (Aymara), former President of Bolivia
Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25,000 years ago to present

The Métis people of Canada can be contrasted, for instance, to the Indigenous-European mixed race mestizos (or caboclos in Brazil) of Hispanic America who, with their larger population (in most Latin-American countries constituting either outright majorities, pluralities, or at the least large minorities), identify largely as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity (cf. ladinos).

The ten most populous Indigenous peoples are the Mapuche (113,680 people), the Kolla (70,505), the Toba (69,452), the Guaraní (68,454), the Wichi (40,036), the Diaguita–Calchaquí (31,753), the Mocoví (15,837), the Huarpe (14,633), the Comechingón (10,863) and the Tehuelche (10,590).