Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Gen. Ambrosio O'Higgins, founder and Marquis of Osorno
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Plaza de Armas
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Fort Reina Luisa: it was designed and built by the Captain of the Royal Engineers Manuel Olaguer Feliú.
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Cattle grazing outside Osorno.
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Osorno's Main Square and Cathedral
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Osorno neighbourhood from a viewpoint
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Catedral de San Mateo
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
Forest near Osorno
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
Antillanca Ski Resort
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Estadio Ruben Marcos Peralta
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

Osorno owes its legacy to fairly recent Chilean settlement, when the government subdued the region's indigenous Mapuche peoples in the mid-19th century and opened the land to Chilean and European immigration soon to follow.

- Osorno, Chile

The Spanish cities of Angol, Imperial, Osorno, Santa Cruz de Oñez, Valdivia and Villarrica were either destroyed or abandoned.

- Mapuche
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

3 related topics



City and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.

City and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.

Idealized illustration of Pastene from Alonso de Ovalle's "Histórica relación del Reyno de Chile"
Picture of Pedro de Valdivia, conquistador of Chile and founder of Valdivia
Image of Torreón El Canelo restored in the 1850s. It is one of two remaining Spanish towers in Valdivia used to defend the city and one of the few remaining colonial structures
A painting of the assault on Corral fort
Friar Camilo Henríquez born in Valdivia was one of the founding fathers of the Republic of Chile
A street in Valdivia after the earthquake of 22 May 1960
Picture of Michelle Bachelet's visit to Valdivia in 2007 in which she confirmed the creation of Los Ríos Region
Kunstmann Brewery, Valdivia, Chile
Map of Valdivia and its surroundings
View of Valdivia from west
Valdivia products treemap, 2020
Picture of Niebla lighthouse situated just above the Niebla fort
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge and the city's sea lion colony
The New Cau Cau bridge in Valdivia has been restored and fixed.
Haverbeck Canal
Libertad Walk & Valdivia cathedral
Isla Teja and Torobayo connected by the Río Cruces Bridge
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge
UACh Botanical Garden
Plaza de la República
Sea lions by the riverside market
An obelisk
Universidad Austral de Chile housing
A German-styled house on General Lagos Street
Haverbeck Canal of the Valdivia River
Valdivia, Chile

The Huilliche and Mapuche were both referred to by the Spaniards as Araucanos.

During the 16th century, the economy of Valdivia was sustained by trade in agricultural products from nearby areas and by the coining and export of placer gold from Villarrica, Madre de Dios and Osorno.


Country in the western part of South America.

Country in the western part of South America.

Lautaro, toqui and hero of the Arauco war
Pedro de Valdivia, conqueror of Chile
Bernardo O'Higgins, Libertador and the Supreme Director of Chile
The Battle of Iquique on 21 May 1879. The victory of Chile in the War of the Pacific allowed its expansion into new territories.
Chile's Almirante Latorre dreadnought in 1921
Salvador Allende
Fighter jets bombing the Presidential Palace of La Moneda during the Chilean coup of 1973
Augusto Pinochet
Five presidents of Chile since Transition to democracy (1990–2022), celebrating the Bicentennial of Chile
The Palacio de La Moneda in downtown Santiago
The Palace of Justice in Santiago
Chile's territorial gains after the War of the Pacific in 1879–83
Karel Doorman-class frigate
F-16 Fighting Falcon
Chile map of Köppen climate classification.
Araucaria araucana trees in Conguillío National Park.
Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), the national bird of Chile.
Topographic map of Chile. To view maps based on SRTM topographic relief of the country, see here.
Osorno Volcano and the Petrohué River
Nef Glacier and the Plomo Lake
General Carrera lake, the largest in the country.
Population of Chile from 1820, projected up to 2050
Mapuche women of Tirúa
Chileans with flags of Chile
Chilean students in Santiago de Chile
German immigrants in southern Chile
Neoclassical Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral
Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (PUC).
FONASA is the funding branch of the Ministry of Health.
A proportional representation of Chile exports, 2019
Chilean (blue) and average Latin American (orange) GDP per capita (1980–2017)
The financial district in Santiago de Chile
Santiago Stock Exchange
Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world
Vineyard in the Casablanca Valley
Elqui Valley, wine and pisco region
Puerto Varas
The Santiago Metro is South America's most extensive metro system
Torre Entel in Santiago de Chile, with the Andes mountains in the background
La Zamacueca, by Manuel Antonio Caro.
Chilean asado (barbecue) and marraqueta
Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos
The Chilean national polo team with President Michelle Bachelet and the trophy of the 2015 World Polo Championship.

Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.

The bus system covers the entire country, from Arica to Santiago (a 30-hour journey) and from Santiago to Punta Arenas (about 40 hours, with a change at Osorno).

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century

Huilliche people

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century
Map showing indigenous peoples of Chile; the Huilliche are shaded peach, near the middle of the country.

The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile.

Albeit the death of Pedro de Valdivia in 1553 halted the Spanish conquests for a while Osorno and Castro were established in Huilliche territory in 1558 and 1567 respectively.