Mapuche

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

- Mapuche
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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Chile

Country in the western part of South America.

Country in the western part of South America.

Lautaro, toqui and hero of the Arauco war
Pedro de Valdivia, conqueror of Chile
Bernardo O'Higgins, Libertador and the Supreme Director of Chile
The Battle of Iquique on 21 May 1879. The victory of Chile in the War of the Pacific allowed its expansion into new territories.
Chile's Almirante Latorre dreadnought in 1921
Salvador Allende
Fighter jets bombing the Presidential Palace of La Moneda during the Chilean coup of 1973
Augusto Pinochet
Five presidents of Chile since Transition to democracy (1990–2022), celebrating the Bicentennial of Chile
The Palacio de La Moneda in downtown Santiago
The Palace of Justice in Santiago
Chile's territorial gains after the War of the Pacific in 1879–83
Karel Doorman-class frigate
F-16 Fighting Falcon
Chile map of Köppen climate classification.
Araucaria araucana trees in Conguillío National Park.
Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), the national bird of Chile.
Topographic map of Chile. To view maps based on SRTM topographic relief of the country, see here.
Osorno Volcano and the Petrohué River
Nef Glacier and the Plomo Lake
General Carrera lake, the largest in the country.
Population of Chile from 1820, projected up to 2050
Mapuche women of Tirúa
Chileans with flags of Chile
Chilean students in Santiago de Chile
German immigrants in southern Chile
Neoclassical Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral
Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (PUC).
FONASA is the funding branch of the Ministry of Health.
A proportional representation of Chile exports, 2019
Chilean (blue) and average Latin American (orange) GDP per capita (1980–2017)
The financial district in Santiago de Chile
Santiago Stock Exchange
Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world
Vineyard in the Casablanca Valley
Elqui Valley, wine and pisco region
Valparaíso
Puerto Varas
The Santiago Metro is South America's most extensive metro system
Torre Entel in Santiago de Chile, with the Andes mountains in the background
La Zamacueca, by Manuel Antonio Caro.
Chilean asado (barbecue) and marraqueta
Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos
The Chilean national polo team with President Michelle Bachelet and the trophy of the 2015 World Polo Championship.

Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile.

Valdivia

City and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.

City and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.

Idealized illustration of Pastene from Alonso de Ovalle's "Histórica relación del Reyno de Chile"
Picture of Pedro de Valdivia, conquistador of Chile and founder of Valdivia
Image of Torreón El Canelo restored in the 1850s. It is one of two remaining Spanish towers in Valdivia used to defend the city and one of the few remaining colonial structures
A painting of the assault on Corral fort
Friar Camilo Henríquez born in Valdivia was one of the founding fathers of the Republic of Chile
A street in Valdivia after the earthquake of 22 May 1960
Picture of Michelle Bachelet's visit to Valdivia in 2007 in which she confirmed the creation of Los Ríos Region
Kunstmann Brewery, Valdivia, Chile
Map of Valdivia and its surroundings
View of Valdivia from west
Valdivia products treemap, 2020
Picture of Niebla lighthouse situated just above the Niebla fort
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge and the city's sea lion colony
The New Cau Cau bridge in Valdivia has been restored and fixed.
Haverbeck Canal
Libertad Walk & Valdivia cathedral
Isla Teja and Torobayo connected by the Río Cruces Bridge
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge
UACh Botanical Garden
Plaza de la República
Sea lions by the riverside market
An obelisk
Universidad Austral de Chile housing
A German-styled house on General Lagos Street
Haverbeck Canal of the Valdivia River
Valdivia, Chile

The Huilliche and Mapuche were both referred to by the Spaniards as Araucanos.

Chiloé Archipelago

Group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.

Group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.

Location within Chile
A southern pudú, one of smallest deer in the world, amongst Chilean rhubarb on Isla San Pedro.
Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) is endemic to the southern portion of the Chilean Coast Range.
Reconstruction of a dalca, a type of boat used by Chonos, Huilliches and Spaniards living in Chiloé
Nicolás Mascardi, shown here in the Cathedral of Bariloche, was among the Jesuits who used Chiloé as a starting point for exploration and missionary activity around Nahuel Huapi Lake
Territories controlled by Chile and the Viceroyalty of Perú after the Battle of Chacabuco of 1817. Chiloé and Valdivia were enclaves accessible only by sea.
This church near Chacao bears evidence of baroque and neoclassical elements introduced by clergy in colonial times.
Chiloé is a center of diversity of potatoes.
Fishing boats in Quellón. Corcovado Volcano in the background.

A theory postulated by chronicler José Pérez García holds that the Cuncos settled in Chiloé Island in Pre-Hispanic times as consequence of a push from more northern Huilliches, who in turn were being displaced by Mapuches.

Chilean Proverb written in Mapuche and Chilean Spanish. The Mapudungun alphabet used here does not reflect an agreed-upon standard. In fact, there are three distinct alphabets currently used to write the Mapuche language.

Mapuche language

Chilean Proverb written in Mapuche and Chilean Spanish. The Mapudungun alphabet used here does not reflect an agreed-upon standard. In fact, there are three distinct alphabets currently used to write the Mapuche language.
Stressed monophthongs of Mapudungun, from
Graffiti in Mapudungun meaning "Uprise Meeting".

Mapuche (, or Mapudungun, Mapuche & Spanish: ) (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is an Araucanian language related to Huilliche spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').

Map of the Araucanía from the 18th century, showing a large part of the territory in which the Arauco War was fought.

Arauco War

Map of the Araucanía from the 18th century, showing a large part of the territory in which the Arauco War was fought.
Pedro de Valdivia
Doña Inés de Suárez in defending the city of Santiago
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Picture from Alonso de Ovalle's Historia de Chile
Picture "El joven Lautaro" of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of its people.
García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete

The Arauco War was a long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.

Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.

Conquest of Chile

Period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1598–1604 in the Araucanía region.

Period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1598–1604 in the Araucanía region.

Synthesis map of the development of the Inca Empire in Chile in the decades before the Spanish arrival.
Pedro de Valdivia
The Juan Bautista Pastene expedition to southern Chile in 1544.

However the largest indigenous population were the Mapuches living south of the Inca borders in the area spanning from the Itata River to Chiloé Archipelago.

Patagonia

Patagonia refers to a geographical region that encompasses the southern end of South America, governed by Argentina and Chile.

Patagonia refers to a geographical region that encompasses the southern end of South America, governed by Argentina and Chile.

Río Negro Province, Argentina.
Ainsworth Bay and Marinelli Glacier, Chile.
View of Punta Arenas, Chile, in winter
Santa Cruz Province
Black-browed albatross, near Ushuaia
Map of the indigenous peoples of Southern Patagonia
Cueva de las Manos site in Santa Cruz, Argentina
Nao Victoria, the replica of the first ship to pass through the Strait of Magellan
An 1840s illustration of indigenous Patagonians from near the Straits of Magellan, from Voyage au pole sud et dans l'Océanie by French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville
Tehuelche warriors in Patagonia
Map of the advance of the Argentine frontier until the establishment of zanja de Alsina
Under General Roca, the Conquest of the Desert extended Argentine power into Patagonia
Tierra del Fuego sheep ranch, 1942: The region's primary activity then, it has been eclipsed by the decline in the global wool market as much as by petroleum and gas extraction.
Gauchos mustering sheep in Patagonia
Whale watching off the Valdes Peninsula
La Trochita on its Chubut Province route: Formerly the sole rapid transport means in the province, La Trochita is now a tourist attraction.

A theory postulated by chronicler José Pérez García explains this holding that the Cuncos (also known as Veliches) settled in Chiloé Island in Pre-Hispanic times as consequence of a push from more northern Huilliches who in turn were being displaced by Mapuches.

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century

Huilliche people

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century
Map showing indigenous peoples of Chile; the Huilliche are shaded peach, near the middle of the country.

The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile.

View of a modern reconstruction of the Fort of Purén built during the occupation.

Occupation of Araucanía

View of a modern reconstruction of the Fort of Purén built during the occupation.
Mapuche groups in Araucanía around 1850. De facto Chilean territory in blue.
Painting showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Photo of Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez, the planner and military leader of the occupation until 1871.
Map showing the "old" and the "new" frontier established by 1870
Painting of the Mapuche cavalry charge at Quecherehuas.
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in a meeting with some of the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Portrait of Quilapán c. 1870.
Communes grouped by dates in which they were founded, 19th century communes were founded as forts. And those of Curarrehue and Teodoro Schmidt were organized from previous populations as early as 1981.
Chilean army during the Occupation of Araucanía.
Map of land ownership in western Araucanía in 1916.
Photo of an Italian immigrant family in Capitán Pastene, Araucanía.

The Occupation of Araucanía or Pacification of Araucanía (1861–1883) was a series of military campaigns, agreements and penetrations by the Chilean army and settlers into Mapuche territory which led to the incorporation of Araucanía into Chilean national territory.

Caupolican

Caupolicán

Caupolican

Caupolicán (meaning ‘polished flint’ (queupu) or ‘blue quartz stone’ (Kallfulikan) in Mapudungun) was a toqui or war leader of the Mapuche people, who led the resistance of his people against the Spanish Conquistadors who invaded the territory of today's Chile during the sixteenth century.