A report on Mapuche

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

- Mapuche
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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Inca Empire

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The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

The Inca Empire at its greatest extent c. 1525
Manco Cápac and Mama Ocllo, children of the Inti
Manco Cápac, First Inca, 1 of 14 Portraits of Inca Kings, Probably mid-18th century. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Inca expansion (1438–1533)
The first image of the Inca in Europe, Pedro Cieza de León, Crónica del Perú, 1553
Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca of the empire, was executed by the Spanish on 29 August 1533
View of Machu Picchu
Sacsayhuamán, the Inca stronghold of Cusco
"The Maiden", one of the Llullaillaco mummies. Inca human sacrifice, Salta province (Argentina).
Diorite Inca sculpture from Amarucancha
Illustration of Inca farmers using a chakitaqlla (Andean foot plough)
Inti, as represented by José Bernardo de Tagle of Peru
The four suyus or quarters of the empire.
Inca tunic
Tokapu. Textiles worn by the Inca elite consisting of geometric figures enclosed by rectangles or squares. There is evidence that the designs were an ideographic language
Quipu, 15th century. Brooklyn Museum
Inca Tunic, 15th-16th Century
Camelid Conopa, 1470–1532, Brooklyn Museum, Small stone figurines, or conopas, of llamas and alpacas were the most common ritual effigies used in the highlands of Peru and Bolivia. These devotional objects were often buried in the animals' corrals to bring protection and prosperity to their owners and fertility to the herds. The cylindrical cavities in their backs were filled with offerings to the gods in the form of a mixture including animal fat, coca leaves, maize kernels and seashells.
Coca leaves
The Battle of the Maule between the Incas (right) and the Mapuches (left)

Traditional historiography claims the advance south halted after the Battle of the Maule where they met determined resistance from the Mapuche.

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Pehuenche

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Indigenous people of South America.

Indigenous people of South America.

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Later they became Araucanized and partially merged with the Mapuche peoples.

De facto Chilean territory and Mapuche groups in Araucanía in 1860 prior to the occupation of Araucanía.

Mapuche conflict

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De facto Chilean territory and Mapuche groups in Araucanía in 1860 prior to the occupation of Araucanía.
Wenufoye, a flag widely used by the Mapuche people in Chile.
Demonstration in Santiago, after the killing of two Mapuche activists.
Flag of the Mapuche-Tehuelche people created in 1991, a symbol of their claim to some Argentine-Mapuche areas.

The Mapuche conflict (conflicto mapuche) involves indigenous Mapuche communities located in Araucanía and nearby regions of Chile and Argentina.

Arauco, Chile

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City and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region.

City and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region.

The Spanish settlements founded here during the Conquest of Chile were destroyed on numerous occasions by the Mapuche during the Arauco War.

Map of Peru showing the distribution of overall Quechua speakers by district

Quechuan languages

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Indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Peruvian Andes.

Indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Peruvian Andes.

Map of Peru showing the distribution of overall Quechua speakers by district
The four branches of Quechua: I (Central), II-A (North Peruvian), II-B (Northern), II-C (Southern)
Vocabulary of the general language of the Indians of Peru, called Quichua (1560). From Domingo de Santo Tomás the first writer in Quechua.
Geographical distribution of Quechua languages by official status
Act of Argentine Independence, written in Spanish and Quechua (1816)

As a result of Inca expansion into Central Chile, there were bilingual Quechua-Mapudungu Mapuche in Central Chile at the time of the Spanish arrival.

The daughter of a lonko dressed in traditional Mapuche silverwork at around 1900.

Mapuche silverwork

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The daughter of a lonko dressed in traditional Mapuche silverwork at around 1900.
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece, 20th century.

Mapuche silverwork is one of the best known aspects of Mapuche material culture.

Alonso de Ercilla

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Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid.

Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid.

Statue of Alonso de Ercilla in Blanco Encalada, Santiago de Chile
Alonso de Ercilla in the Retratos de Españoles Ilustres ("Portraits of Illustrious Spaniards"), 1791.

While in Chile (1556–63) he fought against the Araucanians (Mapuche), and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems.

Location of present-day Mapuche communities in Argentina.

Puelmapu

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Location of present-day Mapuche communities in Argentina.

Puelmapu is the traditional Mapuche territory located east of the Andes.

Purén

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City (2002 pop.

City (2002 pop.

Fuerte de la Pacificación
Museo Historico de Purén

In Mapuche language or Mapudungun Purén means swampy place.

Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture about the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)

Battle of the Maule

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Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture about the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)

The Battle of the Maule (in Mapudungun: Mawlen Weichantun, in Quechua: Mawlli Ch'iraqi) was fought between a coalition of Mapuche people of Chile and the Inca Empire of Peru.