Mapuche

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

- Mapuche
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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Valdivia

City and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.

City and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.

Idealized illustration of Pastene from Alonso de Ovalle's "Histórica relación del Reyno de Chile"
Picture of Pedro de Valdivia, conquistador of Chile and founder of Valdivia
Image of Torreón El Canelo restored in the 1850s. It is one of two remaining Spanish towers in Valdivia used to defend the city and one of the few remaining colonial structures
A painting of the assault on Corral fort
Friar Camilo Henríquez born in Valdivia was one of the founding fathers of the Republic of Chile
A street in Valdivia after the earthquake of 22 May 1960
Picture of Michelle Bachelet's visit to Valdivia in 2007 in which she confirmed the creation of Los Ríos Region
Kunstmann Brewery, Valdivia, Chile
Map of Valdivia and its surroundings
View of Valdivia from west
Valdivia products treemap, 2020
Picture of Niebla lighthouse situated just above the Niebla fort
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge and the city's sea lion colony
The New Cau Cau bridge in Valdivia has been restored and fixed.
Haverbeck Canal
Libertad Walk & Valdivia cathedral
Isla Teja and Torobayo connected by the Río Cruces Bridge
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge
UACh Botanical Garden
Plaza de la República
Sea lions by the riverside market
An obelisk
Universidad Austral de Chile housing
A German-styled house on General Lagos Street
Haverbeck Canal of the Valdivia River
Valdivia, Chile

The Huilliche and Mapuche were both referred to by the Spaniards as Araucanos.

Araucaria araucana

Evergreen tree growing to 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height.

Evergreen tree growing to 1–1.5 m (3–5 ft) in diameter and 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height.

The leaves of A. araucana
A young specimen
Distribution map of A. araucana in central Chile
The piñones are similar to pine nuts, but larger; these roasted seeds are 3 cm and 5 cm long, from two different cultivars.
A monkey puzzle tree at Salesforce Park, San Francisco
The silhouette of the araucaria is very recognizable and has become a symbol for the southern regions of Argentina and Chile. For example, araucarias appear on the coats of arms of Neuquén Province and Araucanía Region.
Araucaria araucana in the Argentine Andes
Bark of a tree in Conguillío National Park, Chile
Female cones
Male cones
Part of a branch of a cultivated tree
A. araucana, Botanical Garden, Wrocław, Poland
A. araucana branch
Monkey puzzle trees are popularly grown as ornamental trees.
Juvenile tree in winter
Mixed forest of Araucaria and coigüe in Nahuelbuta National Park, Chile
Araucaria araucana in Botanical Garden Jevremovac (Belgrade)

Once valued because of its long, straight trunk, its current rarity and vulnerable status mean its wood is now rarely used; it is also sacred to some members of the Mapuche Native American tribe.

Alonso de Ercilla

Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid.

Spanish nobleman, soldier and epic poet, born in Madrid.

Statue of Alonso de Ercilla in Blanco Encalada, Santiago de Chile
Alonso de Ercilla in the Retratos de Españoles Ilustres ("Portraits of Illustrious Spaniards"), 1791.

While in Chile (1556–63) he fought against the Araucanians (Mapuche), and there he began the epic poem La Araucana, considered one of the greatest Spanish historical poems.

Arauco, Chile

City and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region.

City and commune in Chile, located in Arauco Province in the Bío Bío Region.

The Spanish settlements founded here during the Conquest of Chile were destroyed on numerous occasions by the Mapuche during the Arauco War.

Inca Empire

The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

The largest empire in pre-Columbian America.

The Inca Empire at its greatest extent c. 1525
Manco Cápac and Mama Ocllo, children of the Inti
Manco Cápac, First Inca, 1 of 14 Portraits of Inca Kings, Probably mid-18th century. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Inca expansion (1438–1533)
The first image of the Inca in Europe, Pedro Cieza de León, Crónica del Perú, 1553
Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca of the empire, was executed by the Spanish on 29 August 1533
View of Machu Picchu
Sacsayhuamán, the Inca stronghold of Cusco
"The Maiden", one of the Llullaillaco mummies. Inca human sacrifice, Salta province (Argentina).
Diorite Inca sculpture from Amarucancha
Illustration of Inca farmers using a chakitaqlla (Andean foot plough)
Inti, as represented by José Bernardo de Tagle of Peru
The four suyus or quarters of the empire.
Inca tunic
Tokapu. Textiles worn by the Inca elite consisting of geometric figures enclosed by rectangles or squares. There is evidence that the designs were an ideographic language
Quipu, 15th century. Brooklyn Museum
Inca Tunic, 15th-16th Century
Camelid Conopa, 1470–1532, Brooklyn Museum, Small stone figurines, or conopas, of llamas and alpacas were the most common ritual effigies used in the highlands of Peru and Bolivia. These devotional objects were often buried in the animals' corrals to bring protection and prosperity to their owners and fertility to the herds. The cylindrical cavities in their backs were filled with offerings to the gods in the form of a mixture including animal fat, coca leaves, maize kernels and seashells.
Coca leaves
The Battle of the Maule between the Incas (right) and the Mapuches (left)

Traditional historiography claims the advance south halted after the Battle of the Maule where they met determined resistance from the Mapuche.

A casta painting of a Spanish man and an Indigenous woman with a Mestizo child

Mestizo

Term used both for racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined European and Indigenous American ancestry, and in certain countries in Latin America may also refers to people who are culturally European regardless of ancestry (see below).

Term used both for racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined European and Indigenous American ancestry, and in certain countries in Latin America may also refers to people who are culturally European regardless of ancestry (see below).

A casta painting of a Spanish man and an Indigenous woman with a Mestizo child
A casta painting by Miguel Cabrera. Here he shows a Spanish (español) father, Mestiza (mixed Spanish–American Indian) mother, and their Castiza daughter.
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, 1750. The top left grouping is of an indio and an española, with their Mestizo son. This is the only known casta painting with an indio man and española woman.
Casta painting showing 16 hierarchically arranged, mixed-race groupings. The top left grouping uses cholo as a synonym for mestizo. Ignacio Maria Barreda, 1777. Real Academia Española de la Lengua, Madrid.
A statue of Gonzalo Guerrero, who adopted the Maya way of life and fathered the first mestizo children in Mexico and in the mainland Americas (the only mestizos before were those born in the Caribbean to Spanish men and Indigenous Caribbean women).
Chavela Vargas Mixed-Costa Rican Born - Singer
Keylor Navas Mixed-Costa Rican - Real Madrid Goalkeeper
Painting of the First Independence Movement celebration in San Salvador, El Salvador. At the center, José Matías Delgado, a Salvadoran priest and doctor known as El Padre de la Patria Salvadoreña (The Father of the Salvadoran Fatherland), alongside his nephew Manuel José Arce, future Salvadoran president of the Federal Republic of Central America.
Mestizo, Mestiza, Mestizo Sample of a Peruvian casta painting, showing intermarriage within a casta category.
José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, former President of East Timor.
Brazilian footballer Ronaldo
Statue of José Vasconcelos in Mexico City
Español, India, Mestizo. José Joaquín Magón. 18th c Mexico
Casta painting. "Spanish and Indian produce Mestizo", 1780.
Español, India, Mestizo.
Castizo, Mestiza, Chamizo. Miguel Cabrera 1763.
Mulatto and Mestiza, produce Mulatto, he is Torna Atrás [throwback]" by Juan Rodríguez Juárez
Mestizo, India, Coyote. Miguel Cabrera 1763.
De mestizo e India, sale coiote (From a Mestizo man and an Indigenous American woman, a Coyote is begotten).
Mestizo, Albarazada, Barcina.
1919 Barrientos family in Baracoa, Cuba, headed by an ex Spanish soldier and his Indigenous wife
The dance group Joyas Mestizas ("Mestiza jewels") performs at the Fiestas Patrias Parade, South Park, Seattle, 2017

In Chile, from the time the Spanish soldiers with Pedro de Valdivia entered northern Chile, a process of 'mestizaje' began where Spaniards began to intermarry and reproduce with the local bellicose Mapuche population of Indigenous Chileans to produce an overwhelmingly Mestizo population during the first generation in all of the cities they founded.

Distribution of pre-Hispanic people of Chile

Picunche

Distribution of pre-Hispanic people of Chile

The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.

Temuco

City and commune, capital of the Cautín Province and of the Araucanía Region in southern Chile.

City and commune, capital of the Cautín Province and of the Araucanía Region in southern Chile.

Luma apiculata
Central Temuco
Llaima volcano located in the Andes as seen from Temuco valley
Temuco products treemap, 2020
Terminal Rodoviario
Marsano building beside Feria Pinto

Temuco lies in the middle of the historic Araucanía, a traditional land of the indigenous Mapuche.

Osorno, Chile

City and commune in southern Chile and capital of Osorno Province in the Los Lagos Region.

City and commune in southern Chile and capital of Osorno Province in the Los Lagos Region.

Gen. Ambrosio O'Higgins, founder and Marquis of Osorno
Plaza de Armas
Fort Reina Luisa: it was designed and built by the Captain of the Royal Engineers Manuel Olaguer Feliú.
Cattle grazing outside Osorno.
Osorno's Main Square and Cathedral
Osorno neighbourhood from a viewpoint
Catedral de San Mateo
Forest near Osorno
Antillanca Ski Resort
Estadio Ruben Marcos Peralta

Osorno owes its legacy to fairly recent Chilean settlement, when the government subdued the region's indigenous Mapuche peoples in the mid-19th century and opened the land to Chilean and European immigration soon to follow.

Location of present-day Mapuche communities in Argentina.

Puelmapu

Location of present-day Mapuche communities in Argentina.

Puelmapu is the traditional Mapuche territory located east of the Andes.