Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

- Mapuche

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Biobío Region

One of Chile's sixteen regions (first-order administrative divisions).

The Department of Rere was a vital settlement area of Chileans and the three-hundred-year struggle (until the 1870s) to defeat the strong indigenous tribe of the Mapuches.

Zona Sur

One of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.

Aerial view of the volcanic alignment of Villarrica, Quetrupillán and Lanín which follow the Mocha-Villarrica Fault Zone.
View of Termas Geométricas near Coñaripe. The Andes of Zona Sur host numerous hotsprings.
Male southern pudú; Los Lagos Region.
Cattle grazing in the Rupanco area.
Cattle grazing near Llanquihue Lake. Osorno Volcano in the background.
Haverbeck Canal
The maritime influence of some southern Andean valleys makes them prone to snow falls in winter such as in Curarrehue in the picture.
Neltume Lake and Llanquihue River.
Calle-Calle River in picture is one of various large rivers that drain the Andean lakes of Zona Sur.

Southern Chile was during the time of Spanish conquest and colony populated by indigenous Mapuches from Toltén River northwards and by Huilliches south of the river, both groups are classified as Araucanian.

Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993
Colorized photograph of an Amis couple in traditional clothing. Taken in pre-World War II Japanese-ruled Taiwan.
Guatemalan girls in their traditional clothing from the town of Santa Catarina Palopó on Lake Atitlán
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella
Map with the main travels of the Age of Discovery (began in 15th century).
Depiction of a Spaniard entering Chalco with three Tlaxcalan soldiers and an Indigenous porter in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala (pre-1585)
The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay, South Africa in 1652. Painting by Charles Davidson Bell (1813–1882)
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Starting fire by hand, San people in Botswana.
African Pygmies in Congo
Inuit on a traditional qamutik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada.
A girl wears the traditional Nahua headdress in Yohualichan, Veracruz.
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Andes, Peru
Kalash girls in Pakistan
Naga people in Northeast India
Marina A. Temina, a native speaker and teacher of the Nivkh language
Ainu man performing a traditional Ainu dance
Dayak people in Kalimantan
Sámi family in Lapland, 1936
Aboriginal Australian dancers
Dani people from the central highlands of western New Guinea
The New Zealand delegation, including Māori members, endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2010.
Indigenous peoples march for their right to self-determination in Davao City (2008).
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
"Savages of Mokka and Their House in Formosa", pre-1945, Taiwan under Japanese rule
Helena Gualinga, an indigenous environmental and human rights activist
Native American dancer of the Save Our Ancestors Remains and Resources Indigenous Network Group (SOARRING) Foundation, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to educate people about indigenous ways of life

While still in use in-group, and in many names of organizations, "Indian" is less popular among younger people, who tend to prefer "Indigenous" or simply "Native, with most preferring to use the specific name of their tribe or Nation instead of generalities. In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries, one finds the use of terms such as índios, pueblos indígenas, amerindios, povos nativos, povos indígenas, and, in Peru, Comunidades Nativas (Native Communities), particularly among Amazonian societies like the Urarina and Matsés. In Chile, there the most populous indigenous peoples are the Mapuches in the Center-South and the Aymaras in the North. Rapa Nui of Easter Island, who are a Polynesian people, are the only non-Amerindian indigenous people in Chile.

Mapuche conflict

De facto Chilean territory and Mapuche groups in Araucanía in 1860 prior to the occupation of Araucanía.
Wenufoye, a flag widely used by the Mapuche people in Chile.
Demonstration in Santiago, after the killing of two Mapuche activists.
Flag of the Mapuche-Tehuelche people created in 1991, a symbol of their claim to some Argentine-Mapuche areas.

The Mapuche conflict (conflicto mapuche) involves indigenous Mapuche communities located in Araucanía and nearby regions of Chile and Argentina.


Indigenous tribe from the northern part of La Pampa Province, Argentina, in South America.

With Puelche, Pehuenche and also Patagones from the Günün-a-Küna group origins, they were conquered by the Mapuche.

Puelche people

The Gününa küna, or sometimes, Puelche (Mapudungun: pwelche, "people of the east") are indigenous peoples living east of the Andes Mountains in Chile and Southwest Argentina.

Flag of the Gününa künä, or Puelche people

The name "Puelche" was not native, but was given to them by the Mapuche.


Lautaro (Englished as 'Levtaru') ( "swift hawk") (1534?

Bust of Lautaro
Picture "El joven Lautaro" of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.

– April 29, 1557) was a young Mapuche toqui known for leading the indigenous resistance against Spanish conquest in Chile and developing the tactics that would continue to be employed by the Mapuche during the long-running Arauco War.

Araucanization of Patagonia

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

The Araucanization of Patagonia (Araucanización de la Patagonia) was the process of the expansion of Mapuche culture, influence, and its Mapudungun language from Araucanía across the Andes into the plains of Patagonia.



Caupolicán (meaning ‘polished flint’ (queupu) or ‘blue quartz stone’ (Kallfulikan) in Mapudungun) was a toqui or war leader of the Mapuche people, who led the resistance of his people against the Spanish Conquistadors who invaded the territory of today's Chile during the sixteenth century.

Buenos Aires

Capital and largest city of Argentina.

Our Lady of Buen Aire in front of the National Migration Department
Juan de Garay founding Buenos Aires in 1580. The initial settlement, founded by Pedro de Mendoza, had been abandoned since 1542.
Aldus verthoont hem de stadt Buenos Ayrros geleegen in Rio de la Plata, painting by a Dutch sailor who anchored at the port around 1628.
Emeric Essex Vidal, General view of Buenos Ayres from the Plaza de Toros, 1820. In this area now lies the Plaza San Martín.
Impression of the Buenos Aires Cathedral by Carlos Pellegrini, 1829.
View of the Avenida de Mayo in 1915
Construction of the Obelisk of Buenos Aires on the 9 de Julio Avenue, 1936.
9 de Julio Avenue, 1986.
Catalinas Norte is an important business complex composed of nineteen commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies, foreign subsidiaries, and diplomatic offices. It is located in the Retiro and San Nicolás neighborhoods.
Satellite view of the Greater Buenos Aires area, and the Río de la Plata.
Buenos Aires Botanical Garden
Heavy rain and thunderstorm in Plaza San Martin. Thunderstorms are usual during the summer.
The Buenos Aires City Hall in the right corner of the entrance to the Avenida de Mayo
Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires City
The Immigrants' Hotel, constructed in 1906, received and assisted the thousands of immigrants arriving to the city. The hotel is now a National Museum.
Villa 31, a villa miseria in Buenos Aires
The Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic church in the city.
The Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the main stock exchange and financial center of Argentina.
Headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina, the national bank and the largest in the country's banking sector.
Buenos Aires Bus, the city's tourist bus service. The official estimate is that the bus carries between 700 and 800 passengers per day, and has carried half a million passengers since its opening.
Monument to the Carta Magna and Four Regions of Argentina in the neighborhood of Palermo
The Centro Cultural Kirchner (Kirchner Cultural Center), located at the former Central Post Office, is the largest of Latin America.
Homage to Buenos Aires, a mural located at the Carlos Gardel station of the Buenos Aires Underground. It represents a typical scene from the city and several of its icons, such as singer Carlos Gardel, the Obelisco, the port, tango dancing and the Abasto market.
Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art.
The interior of El Ateneo Grand Splendid, a celebrated bookstore located in the barrio of Recoleta.
Tango dancers during the World tango dance tournament.
The Buenos Aires Philharmonic.
Gaumont Cinema opened in 1912.
A screening at Parque Centenario, as part of the 2011 edition of BAFICI
A fashion show at the Planetarium in 2013, as part of BAFWEEK.
View of Bolívar Street facing the Cabildo and Diagonal Norte, on Buenos Aires' historical center. The city's characteristic convergence of diverse architectural styles can be seen, including Spanish Colonial, Beaux-Arts and modernist architecture.
Teatro Colón.
Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, a public high school in Buenos Aires, and it is one of the most prestigious in Argentina and Latin America.
University of Buenos Aires' Law School in Recoleta
July 9 Avenue
Aeroparque Jorge Newbery
A Mitre Line Trenes Argentinos train in Retiro railway station
Map of the Greater Buenos Aires Commuter Rail Network
200 Series rolling stock at San José de Flores station, Buenos Aires Underground.
Buenos Aires Underground map
Metrobus, Paseo del Bajo.
Buquebus high-speed ferries connect Buenos Aires to Uruguay
Campo Argentino de Polo, home of the Argentine Open Polo Championship, the most important global event of this discipline
La Bombonera during a night game of Copa Libertadores between Boca Juniors v. Colo Colo.
Luna Park

Amongst the 61,876 persons who are of indigenous origin, 15.9% are Quechua people, 15.9% are Guaraní, 15.5% are Aymara and 11% are Mapuche.