Mapuche

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

- Mapuche
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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La Araucana, 1st part, editio princeps, Madrid, 1569.

La Araucana

16th-century epic poem in Spanish by Alonso de Ercilla, about the Spanish Conquest of Chile.

16th-century epic poem in Spanish by Alonso de Ercilla, about the Spanish Conquest of Chile.

La Araucana, 1st part, editio princeps, Madrid, 1569.

He occupied several positions in the household of Prince Philip (later King Philip II of Spain), before requesting and receiving appointment to a military expedition to Chile to subdue the Araucanians of Chile, he joined the adventurers.

SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 40th and 41st parallel south. The Cunco inhabited the western (left) territory shown in the map. But not necessarily the northwest (top left).

Cunco people

Poorly known subgroup of Huilliche people native to coastal areas of southern Chile and the nearby inland.

Poorly known subgroup of Huilliche people native to coastal areas of southern Chile and the nearby inland.

SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 40th and 41st parallel south. The Cunco inhabited the western (left) territory shown in the map. But not necessarily the northwest (top left).
SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 41st and 42nd parallel south. Much the mainland seen here north of Carelmapu and Calbuco was depopulated as a consequence of a long running conflict between the Spanish and loyalist Indians on one side and Cuncos and Huilliches on the other side.
Distribution of the pre-Hispanic people of Chile.

A theory postulated by chronicler José Pérez García holds the Cuncos settled in Chiloé Island in Pre-Hispanic times as consequence of a push from more northern Huilliches who in turn were being displaced by Mapuches.

Valdivia after the 22 May earthquake

1960 Valdivia earthquake

The most powerful earthquake ever recorded.

The most powerful earthquake ever recorded.

Valdivia after the 22 May earthquake
ShakeMap of the mainshock
The Valdivia earthquake released almost a quarter of all global seismic energy between 1906 and 2005
Travel time of the tsunami across the Pacific at one-hour intervals
Wrecks of Carlos Haverbeck (top) and Canelos (bottom).
Hilo, Hawaii, after the tsunami
Effect of the tsunami at Kamaishi, Japan
Eruption of Cordón Caulle following the earthquake
The destroyed center of Corral, Chile
Destroyed infrastructure of Altos Hornos y Acerías de Corral, a steel factory closed a few years before the earthquake.

In the coastal village Collileufu (La Araucanía Region), native Lafkenches carried out a human sacrifice during the days following the main earthquake.

Purén

City (2002 pop.

City (2002 pop.

Fuerte de la Pacificación
Museo Historico de Purén

In Mapuche language or Mapudungun Purén means swampy place.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

Battle of Curalaba

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

The Battle of Curalaba (Batalla de Curalaba ) is a 1598 battle and ambush where Mapuche people led by Pelantaru soundly defeated Spanish conquerors led by Martín García Óñez de Loyola at Curalaba, southern Chile.

Official portrait,

Augusto Pinochet

Chilean general who ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990, first as the leader of the Military Junta of Chile from 1973 to 1981, being declared President of the Republic by the junta in 1974 and becoming the de facto dictator of Chile, and from 1981 to 1990 as de jure President after a new Constitution, which confirmed him in the office, was approved by a referendum in 1980.

Chilean general who ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990, first as the leader of the Military Junta of Chile from 1973 to 1981, being declared President of the Republic by the junta in 1974 and becoming the de facto dictator of Chile, and from 1981 to 1990 as de jure President after a new Constitution, which confirmed him in the office, was approved by a referendum in 1980.

Official portrait,
U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger with Pinochet in 1976
Junta session one week after the 1973 coup
Pinochet in 1982
Pinochet meeting with U.S. President Jimmy Carter in Washington, D.C., September 6, 1977
Women of the Association of Families of the Detained-Disappeared demonstrate in front of La Moneda Palace during the Pinochet military regime
Orlando Letelier, a former Chilean minister, was assassinated in Washington, D.C. in 1976.
Memorial to victims of Pinochet's regime
Pinochet as Commander-in-Chief and President Aylwin meeting with U.S. President George H. W. Bush in 1990
Pinochet congratulates new President Patricio Aylwin after handing over the presidential sash, marking the transfer of power from military dictatorship to democratic leadership, 11 March 1990.
Photographs of victims of Pinochet's regime
Image showing Pinochet in an event with background imagery comparing the year of Chilean independence, 1810, with 1973, the year of the coup d'état that brought Pinochet to power
Pinochet in 1995
Documentation of some of Pinochet's many United States bank accounts
Pinochet on the bier on 11 December 2006
Pinochet's funeral

In 1989 indigenous Mapuche groups representing the "Consejos Regionales" bestowed Pinochet the title Ulmen Füta Lonko or Great Authority.

Robert Boyle

Scientific racism

Pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism , racial inferiority, or racial superiority.

Pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism , racial inferiority, or racial superiority.

Robert Boyle
Henry Home, Lord Kames
Homo monstrosus, or Patagonian giants, from Voyage au pole sud et dans l'Océanie (Voyage to the South Pole, and in Oceania), by Jules Dumont d'Urville
John Hunter. Painted by John Jackson in 1813, after an original by Sir Joshua Reynolds, who exhibited his painting at the Royal Academy in 1786.
Charles White
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Christoph Meiners
Georges Cuvier
Arthur Schopenhauer
A late-19th-century illustration by H. Strickland Constable shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic".
Portrait of Arthur de Gobineau by the Comtesse de la Tour, 1876
Charles Darwin in 1868
Herbert Hope Risley
Ernst Haeckel
Pieter Camper
Racialist differences: "a Negro head ... a Caucasian skull ... a Mongol head", Samuel George Morton, 1839
Illustration from Types of Mankind (1854), whose authors Josiah Clark Nott and George Robins Gliddon implied that "Negroes" were a creational rank between "Greeks" and chimpanzees
Cephalic Index. William Z. Ripley's European cephalic index map, The Races of Europe (1899).
Joseph Deniker
Madison Grant, creator of the "Nordic race" term
Samuel Cartwright, M.D.
Francis Galton in his later years
The Swedish State Institute for Racial Biology, founded in 1922, was the world's first government-funded institute performing research into racial biology. It was housed in what is now the Dean's house at Uppsala and was closed down in 1958.
Nazi poster promoting eugenics
Lothrop Stoddard (1883–1950)

He thought Chileans were a mix of two martial races: the indigenous Mapuches and the Visigoths of Spain, who descended ultimately from Götaland in Sweden.

Cañete, Chile

City and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region.

City and commune in Chile, located in the Arauco Province of the Biobío Region.

Two months later, native Mapuches destroyed the fort.

The daughter of a lonko dressed in traditional Mapuche silverwork at around 1900.

Mapuche silverwork

The daughter of a lonko dressed in traditional Mapuche silverwork at around 1900.
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece, 20th century.

Mapuche silverwork is one of the best known aspects of Mapuche material culture.

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century

Huilliche language

Moribund branch of the Araucanian language family.

Moribund branch of the Araucanian language family.

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century

Huilliche is closely related to Mapudungun, the language of the Mapuche, though more research is needed to determine the degree of mutual intelligibility between the two.