A report on Mapuche

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

- Mapuche
Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

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Temuco

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City and commune, capital of the Cautín Province and of the Araucanía Region in southern Chile.

City and commune, capital of the Cautín Province and of the Araucanía Region in southern Chile.

Luma apiculata
Central Temuco
Llaima volcano located in the Andes as seen from Temuco valley
Temuco products treemap, 2020
Terminal Rodoviario
Marsano building beside Feria Pinto

Temuco lies in the middle of the historic Araucanía, a traditional land of the indigenous Mapuche.

Flag of the Gününa künä, or Puelche people

Puelche people

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The Gününa küna, or sometimes, Puelche (Mapudungun: pwelche, "people of the east") are indigenous peoples living east of the Andes Mountains in Chile and Southwest Argentina.

The Gününa küna, or sometimes, Puelche (Mapudungun: pwelche, "people of the east") are indigenous peoples living east of the Andes Mountains in Chile and Southwest Argentina.

Flag of the Gününa künä, or Puelche people

The name "Puelche" was not native, but was given to them by the Mapuche.

SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 40th and 41st parallel south. The Cunco inhabited the western (left) territory shown in the map. But not necessarily the northwest (top left).

Cunco people

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Poorly known subgroup of Huilliche people native to coastal areas of southern Chile and the nearby inland.

Poorly known subgroup of Huilliche people native to coastal areas of southern Chile and the nearby inland.

SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 40th and 41st parallel south. The Cunco inhabited the western (left) territory shown in the map. But not necessarily the northwest (top left).
SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 41st and 42nd parallel south. Much the mainland seen here north of Carelmapu and Calbuco was depopulated as a consequence of a long running conflict between the Spanish and loyalist Indians on one side and Cuncos and Huilliches on the other side.
Distribution of the pre-Hispanic people of Chile.

A theory postulated by chronicler José Pérez García holds the Cuncos settled in Chiloé Island in Pre-Hispanic times as consequence of a push from more northern Huilliches who in turn were being displaced by Mapuches.

Diachronous map of territories at one point known to have been primarily inhabited by Mapuches (sensu lato) in the Southern Cone of South America.

Wallmapu

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Diachronous map of territories at one point known to have been primarily inhabited by Mapuches (sensu lato) in the Southern Cone of South America.

Wallmapu is a name for the traditional territory of the Mapuche people of southern South America.

Osorno, Chile

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City and commune in southern Chile and capital of Osorno Province in the Los Lagos Region.

City and commune in southern Chile and capital of Osorno Province in the Los Lagos Region.

Gen. Ambrosio O'Higgins, founder and Marquis of Osorno
Plaza de Armas
Fort Reina Luisa: it was designed and built by the Captain of the Royal Engineers Manuel Olaguer Feliú.
Cattle grazing outside Osorno.
Osorno's Main Square and Cathedral
Osorno neighbourhood from a viewpoint
Catedral de San Mateo
Forest near Osorno
Antillanca Ski Resort
Estadio Ruben Marcos Peralta

Osorno owes its legacy to fairly recent Chilean settlement, when the government subdued the region's indigenous Mapuche peoples in the mid-19th century and opened the land to Chilean and European immigration soon to follow.

A casta painting of a Spanish man and an Indigenous woman with a Mestizo child

Mestizo

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Term used both for racial classification used to refer to a person of mixed European and Indigenous American ancestry.

Term used both for racial classification used to refer to a person of mixed European and Indigenous American ancestry.

A casta painting of a Spanish man and an Indigenous woman with a Mestizo child
A casta painting by Miguel Cabrera. Here he shows a Spanish (español) father, Mestiza (mixed Spanish–American Indian) mother, and their Castiza daughter.
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, 1750. The top left grouping is of an indio and an española, with their Mestizo son. This is the only known casta painting with an indio man and española woman.
Casta painting showing 16 hierarchically arranged, mixed-race groupings. The top left grouping uses cholo as a synonym for mestizo. Ignacio Maria Barreda, 1777. Real Academia Española de la Lengua, Madrid.
A statue of Gonzalo Guerrero, who adopted the Maya way of life and fathered the first mestizo children in Mexico and in the mainland Americas (the only mestizos before were those born in the Caribbean to Spanish men and Indigenous Caribbean women).
Chavela Vargas Mixed-Costa Rican Born - Singer
Keylor Navas Mixed-Costa Rican - Real Madrid Goalkeeper
Painting of the First Independence Movement celebration in San Salvador, El Salvador. At the center, José Matías Delgado, a Salvadoran priest and doctor known as El Padre de la Patria Salvadoreña (The Father of the Salvadoran Fatherland), alongside his nephew Manuel José Arce, future Salvadoran president of the Federal Republic of Central America.
Mestizo, Mestiza, Mestizo Sample of a Peruvian casta painting, showing intermarriage within a casta category.
José Ramos-Horta, 1996 Nobel Peace Prize winner, former President of East Timor.
Brazilian footballer Ronaldo
Statue of José Vasconcelos in Mexico City
Español, India, Mestizo. José Joaquín Magón. 18th c Mexico
Casta painting. "Spanish and Indian produce Mestizo", 1780.
Español, India, Mestizo.
Castizo, Mestiza, Chamizo. Miguel Cabrera 1763.
Mulatto and Mestiza, produce Mulatto, he is Torna Atrás [throwback]" by Juan Rodríguez Juárez
Mestizo, India, Coyote. Miguel Cabrera 1763.
De mestizo e India, sale coiote (From a Mestizo man and an Indigenous American woman, a Coyote is begotten).
Mestizo, Albarazada, Barcina.
1919 Barrientos family in Baracoa, Cuba, headed by an ex Spanish soldier and his Indigenous wife
The dance group Joyas Mestizas ("Mestiza jewels") performs at the Fiestas Patrias Parade, South Park, Seattle, 2017

In Chile, from the time the Spanish soldiers with Pedro de Valdivia entered northern Chile, a process of 'mestizaje' began where Spaniards began to intermarry and reproduce with the local bellicose Mapuche population of Indigenous Chileans to produce an overwhelmingly Mestizo population during the first generation in all of the cities they founded.

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993

Indigenous peoples

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Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993
Colorized photograph of an Amis couple in traditional clothing. Taken in pre-World War II Japanese-ruled Taiwan.
Guatemalan girls in their traditional clothing from the town of Santa Catarina Palopó on Lake Atitlán
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella
Map with the main travels of the Age of Discovery (began in 15th century).
Depiction of a Spaniard entering Chalco with three Tlaxcalan soldiers and an Indigenous porter in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala (pre-1585)
The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay, South Africa in 1652. Painting by Charles Davidson Bell (1813–1882)
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Starting fire by hand, San people in Botswana.
African Pygmies in Congo
Inuit on a traditional qamutik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada.
A girl wears the traditional Nahua headdress in Yohualichan, Veracruz.
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Andes, Peru
Kalash girls in Pakistan
Naga people in Northeast India
Marina A. Temina, a native speaker and teacher of the Nivkh language
Ainu man performing a traditional Ainu dance
Dayak people in Kalimantan
Sámi family in Lapland, 1936
Aboriginal Australian dancers
Dani people from the central highlands of western New Guinea
The New Zealand delegation, including Māori members, endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2010.
Indigenous peoples march for their right to self-determination in Davao City (2008).
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
"Savages of Mokka and Their House in Formosa", pre-1945, Taiwan under Japanese rule
Helena Gualinga, an indigenous environmental and human rights activist
Native American dancer of the Save Our Ancestors Remains and Resources Indigenous Network Group (SOARRING) Foundation, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to educate people about indigenous ways of life

While still in use in-group, and in many names of organizations, "Indian" is less popular among younger people, who tend to prefer "Indigenous" or simply "Native, with most preferring to use the specific name of their tribe or Nation instead of generalities. In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries, one finds the use of terms such as índios, pueblos indígenas, amerindios, povos nativos, povos indígenas, and, in Peru, Comunidades Nativas (Native Communities), particularly among Amazonian societies like the Urarina and Matsés. In Chile, there the most populous indigenous peoples are the Mapuches in the Center-South and the Aymaras in the North. Rapa Nui of Easter Island, who are a Polynesian people, are the only non-Amerindian indigenous people in Chile.

Emblem used by the Organos de Resistencia Territorial (military arm) in sabotage actions awarded by the CAM. The image represents a guemil (symbol of Mapuche iconography) with a Mapuche clava inside it.

Coordinadora Arauco-Malleco

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Emblem used by the Organos de Resistencia Territorial (military arm) in sabotage actions awarded by the CAM. The image represents a guemil (symbol of Mapuche iconography) with a Mapuche clava inside it.
Ngüñelfe with blue background, one of the traditional flags

Coordinadora Arauco-Malleco (CAM) is a radical, militant indigenous organization engaged primarily in political violence in their pursuit of attaining an autonomous Mapuche state in Wallmapu, which, according to them, would only be the revindication and recovery of former Mapuche lands.

The Chilean colonization project took advantage of the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states to recruit immigrants.

German colonization of Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue

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From 1850 to 1875, some 6,000 German immigrants settled in the region around Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue in Southern Chile as part of a state-led colonization scheme.

From 1850 to 1875, some 6,000 German immigrants settled in the region around Valdivia, Osorno and Llanquihue in Southern Chile as part of a state-led colonization scheme.

The Chilean colonization project took advantage of the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states to recruit immigrants.
Example of German architecture in Puerto Varas, a town at Llanquihue Lake with strong German influence.
Drawing of the landscape around Puerto Montt in 1850 by Vicente Pérez Rosales
2009 view of Calbuco volcano and Llanquihue Lake. Note the open fields at its foot.
Casa Hollstein, an example of German-Chilean architecture in Osorno.
Crudos and beer at Café Haussmann in downtown Valdivia.

Early German settlers had good relations with the indigenous Mapuche and Huilliche, in contrast to their more uneasy relations with the Spanish-descent elite of Valdivia, whom they considered lazy.

"Baile del Santiago antiguo" by Pedro Subercaseaux. Chile's colonial high society were made up by landowners and government officials.

Colonial Chile

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Period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence.

Period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence.

"Baile del Santiago antiguo" by Pedro Subercaseaux. Chile's colonial high society were made up by landowners and government officials.
1744 engraving published in Relación histórica del viaje a la América meridional. The image shows cattle in the Chilean countryside including a square for cattle slaughter.

The period was characterized by a lengthy conflict between Spaniards and native Mapuches known as the Arauco War.