Mapuche language

MapudungunMapucheMapudungúnMapudungun languagevelicheMapudunguMapundungun Mapudungun languageAraucan languageAraucanian
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is an Araucanian language related to Huilliche spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').wikipedia
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Quechuan languages

QuechuaQuechua languageQuechuan
There is a more recent lexical influence from the Quechuan languages (pataka 'hundred', warangka 'thousand') associated with the Inca Empire and from Spanish.
As result of Inca expansion into Central Chile there were bilingual Quechua-Mapudungu Mapuche in Central Chile at the time of the Spanish arrival.

Chilean Spanish

ChileanSpanishChile
Speakers of Chilean Spanish who also speak Mapudungun tend to use more impersonal pronouns when speaking Spanish.
Speakers of Chilean Spanish who also speak German or Mapudungun tend to use more impersonal pronouns (see also: Alemañol).

Chiloé Archipelago

ChiloéChiloeArchipelago of Chiloé
The finding of many Chono toponyms in Chiloé Archipelago, where Veliche, a variant of Mapuche language has been dominant suggest Mapuche language displaced Chono language there prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-16th century.
Chiloé is derived from the Mapuche word chillwe, meaning "seagull place".

Picunche

MapochoesPicunche peopleMapuche groups
When the Spanish arrived in Chile, they found four groups of Mapuche speakers in the region of Araucanía, from which the Spanish called them araucanos: the Picunche (from pikum 'north' and che 'people'), the Huilliche people (from willi 'south'), the Pehuenche (from pewen 'monkey puzzle tree' Araucaria araucana), and the Moluche (from molu 'west').
The Picunche (a Mapudungun word meaning "North People"), also referred to as picones by the Spanish, were a Mapudungun-speaking Chilean people living to the north of the Mapuches or Araucanians (a name given to those Mapuche living between the Itata and Toltén rivers) and south of the Choapa River and the Diaguitas.

Pehuenche

PehuenchesPehuenche peoplePewenche
When the Spanish arrived in Chile, they found four groups of Mapuche speakers in the region of Araucanía, from which the Spanish called them araucanos: the Picunche (from pikum 'north' and che 'people'), the Huilliche people (from willi 'south'), the Pehuenche (from pewen 'monkey puzzle tree' Araucaria araucana), and the Moluche (from molu 'west').
Pehuenche (or Pewenche, people of the "pehuen" or "pewen" in Mapudungun) are an indigenous people of South America.

Chono language

ChonoChono etymologiesChono toponyms
The finding of many Chono toponyms in Chiloé Archipelago, where Veliche, a variant of Mapuche language has been dominant suggest Mapuche language displaced Chono language there prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the mid-16th century.
There are various placenames in Chiloé Archipelago with Chono etymologies despite the main indigenous language of the archipelago at the arrival of the Spanish being veliche.

Araucanian languages

AraucanianAraucanian languageAraucanian language family
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is an Araucanian language related to Huilliche spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
The living representatives of this family are Mapudungun (ISO 639-3: arn) and Huilliche (ISO 639-3: huh).

Budi Lake

Lago BudiRaised fields of Budi Lake
Sub-group V is spoken at the coast of Araucanía Region including Queule, Budi Lake and Toltén.
Budi Lake (Lago Budi, ) from the Mapudungun word Füzi which means salt, is a tidal brackish water lake located near the coast of La Araucanía Region, southern Chile.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is an Araucanian language related to Huilliche spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
There are several indigenous languages spoken in Chile: Mapudungun, Quechua, Aymara and Rapa Nui.

Moluche

Moluche people
When the Spanish arrived in Chile, they found four groups of Mapuche speakers in the region of Araucanía, from which the Spanish called them araucanos: the Picunche (from pikum 'north' and che 'people'), the Huilliche people (from willi 'south'), the Pehuenche (from pewen 'monkey puzzle tree' Araucaria araucana), and the Moluche (from molu 'west').
Their language was a dialect of Mapudungun, a Mapuche language.

Huilliche language

HuillicheHuillice languagehuh
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is an Araucanian language related to Huilliche spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
Huilliche is closely related to Mapudungun, the language of the Mapuche, though more research is needed to determine the degree of mutual intelligibility between the two.

Purén

San Juan Bautista de Purén
Sub-group III is centered around Purén.
In Mapuche language or Mapudungun Purén means swampy place.

Pucón

PuconPucón, Chile
Group VII is spoken in Valdivia Province plus Pucón and Curarrehue.
Pucón (Mapudungun: "entrance to the cordillera") is a Chilean city and commune administered by the municipality of Pucón.

Tiwanaku empire

TiwanakuTiwanaku cultureTiahuanaco
This areal linguistic influence may have arrived with a migratory wave arising from the collapse of the Tiwanaku Empire around 1000 CE.
This explains how the Mapuche language obtained many loanwords from Puquina language including antu (sun), calcu (warlock), cuyen (moon), chadi (salt) and ñuque (mother).

Puquina language

PuquinaPukinapuq
Moulian et al. (2015) argue that the Puquina language influenced Mapuche language long before the rise of the Inca Empire.
Moulian et al. (2015) argue that Puquina language influenced Mapuche language of southern Chile long before the rise of the Inca Empire.

Mapuche history

Mapuche Uprising of 1598Mapucheorigin of the Mapuche
Croese finds these relationships as consistent, but not proof, with the theory of origin of the Mapuche proposed by Ricardo E. Latcham.
There is no consensus on the linguistic affiliation of the Mapuche language, Mapudungun.

Temuco

Temuco, ChileLa Araucanía
Around Temuco, Freire and Gorbea the sub-group VI is spoken.
The word Temuco comes from the Mapudungun language, meaning "temu water"; "temu" is the common name of two native trees of the family Myrtaceae, Luma apiculata (also known as arrayán in Spanish) and Blepharocalyx cruckschankii.

Araucaria araucana

monkey puzzle treemonkey puzzlearaucaria
When the Spanish arrived in Chile, they found four groups of Mapuche speakers in the region of Araucanía, from which the Spanish called them araucanos: the Picunche (from pikum 'north' and che 'people'), the Huilliche people (from willi 'south'), the Pehuenche (from pewen 'monkey puzzle tree' Araucaria araucana), and the Moluche (from molu 'west').
Pehuen means Araucaria and che means people in Mapudungun.

Biobío River

Bío Bío RiverBío-Bío RiverBio Bio River
Sub-group I is centered in Arauco Province, Sub-group II is the dialect of Angol, Los Ángeles and the middle and lower Bío Bío River.
The name "Biobío" comes from Mapudungun, the Mapuche language.

Valdivia

Valdivia, ChileSanta María la Blanca de ValdiviaBierfest Valdivia
It was destroyed in a fire at the Convento de San Francisco in Valdivia in 1928.
By the time of the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores, Valdivia was inhabited by the Huilliche (Mapudungun for People of the South).

Approximant consonant

ApproximantApproximantsGlide
One is in the Korean diphthong or though it is more frequently analyzed as velar (as in the table above), and Mapudungun may be another, with three high vowel sounds,, and three corresponding consonants,, and, and a third one is often described as a voiced unrounded velar fricative; some texts note a correspondence between this approximant and that is parallel to – and –.

List of Mapudungun placenames

A Mapudungun word
The following is a listing of placenames from the Mapudungun language, generally from Chile and southwestern Argentina.

Mapuche

AraucanianMapuche peopleMapuches
Mapuche or Mapudungun (from mapu 'land' and dungun 'speak, speech') is an Araucanian language related to Huilliche spoken in south-central Chile and west central Argentina by the Mapuche people (from mapu 'land' and che 'people').
The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social, religious, and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun speakers.

María Catrileo

Catrileo, MaríaMaría Catrileo Chiguailaf
María Catrileo Chiguailaf de Codo is a native Mapuche linguist and professor of Spanish, English and Mapudungun language.