A report on Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus

1st century AD bust of Pompey, after an original from 55–50 BC
Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A view of Monte Conero in Marche, Italy (formerly Picenum), birthplace of Pompey
Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
Roman statue putatively depicting Pompey, at the Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan, Italy), brought from Rome in 1627 by Galeazzo Arconati
A Roman marble head of the triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus, mid-1st century BC, Grand Palais, Paris
Marble bust of Pompey at the Louvre, Paris
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
Modern bust of Pompey in the Residenz, Munich
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great
A Roman portrait of Crassus, Pompey's political rival turned begrudging ally, in the Musée du Louvre, Paris
Denarius minted by Publius Licinius Crassus, son of the triumvir Marcus, as monetalis in 55 BC; on the obverse is a laureate bust of Venus, perhaps in honor of his commanding officer Julius Caesar; on the reverse is an unidentified female figure, perhaps representing Gaul
A denarius of Pompey minted in 49–48 BC
"The torture of Crassus," 1530s, Louvre
A tetradrachm of Tigranes II the Great of Armenia, minted at Antioch, 83–69 BC
Pompey in the Temple of Jerusalem, a miniature by Jean Fouquet, 15th century
The bust of Mithridates of Pontus in the Louvre, Paris
Judea (shown in blue) under Hyrcanus II in 63 BC, having been reduced to a small vassal as Pompey annexed the north for Rome (shown in red)
A modern bust of Pompey, restored in the 17th century with a black marble base, Vaux-le-Vicomte, France
18th-century depiction of the third triumph
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great
The Tusculum portrait, a bust of Julius Caesar in the Archaeological Museum of Turin, Italy
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
The Flight of Pompey after Pharsalus, by Jean Fouquet
Roman bust of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt, mid-1st century BC, Altes Museum, Antikensammlung Berlin, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head
Theodotus shows Caesar the head of Pompey; etching, 1820
The head of Pompey on a denarius minted in 40 BC by his son Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius

Crassus rose to political prominence following his victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus, sharing the consulship with his rival Pompey the Great.

- Marcus Licinius Crassus

In 60 BC, Pompey joined Crassus and Caesar in the military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.

- Pompey
1st century AD bust of Pompey, after an original from 55–50 BC

26 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Italy and surrounding territory, 218 BC

Third Servile War

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The last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic known as the Servile Wars.

The last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic known as the Servile Wars.

Italy and surrounding territory, 218 BC
The Gladiator Mosaic at the Galleria Borghese
Initial movements of Roman (red) and Slave (blue) forces from the Capuan revolt to the end of winter 73–72 BC. Insert: Vesuvius area.
Spartacus, by Denis Foyatier, c. 1830, displayed at the Louvre. An example of a modern heroic depiction of Spartacus.
The events of 72 BC, according to Appian's version of events
The events of 72 BC, according to Plutarch's version of events
The events of early 71 BC. Marcus Licinius Crassus takes command of the Roman legions, confronts Spartacus, and forces the rebel slaves to retreat through Lucania to the straits near Messina. Plutarch says this occurred in the Picenum region, while Appian places the initial battles between Crassus and Spartacus in the Samnium region.
The last events of the war in 71 BC, where the army of Spartacus broke the siege by Crassus' legions and retreated toward the mountains near Petelia. Shows the initial skirmishes between elements of the two sides, the turn-about of the Spartacan forces for the final confrontation. Note the legions of Pompey moving in from the north to capture survivors.
The Fall of Spartacus

Eventually Rome fielded an army of eight legions under the harsh but effective leadership of Marcus Licinius Crassus that destroyed the army of slaves in 71 BC. This happened after a long and bitter fighting retreat before the legions of Crassus and after the rebels realized that the legions of Pompey and Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus were moving in to entrap them.

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar, 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer

Gallic Wars

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The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgium, along with parts of Germany and the United Kingdom).

The Gallic Wars were waged between 58 BC and 50 BC by the Roman general Julius Caesar against the peoples of Gaul (present-day France, Belgium, along with parts of Germany and the United Kingdom).

Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar, 1899, by Lionel Noel Royer
A modern re-enactor in 2012 wearing the gear that a VII legion standard bearer would have during the Gallic Wars era.
The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar
Multi-year overview of the Gallic Wars. The general routes taken by Caesar's army are indicated by the arrows.
The campaigns of 58 BC (In Italian). Note the Roman territory in yellow does not yet include modern day France, the Low Countries, or Germany. Caesar's expeditions are a red line, with battles noted. Celtic cities are in green, Germanic cities in orange.
Campaign map of 57 BC. Territory conquered the previous year is shaded red.
Denarius minted by Decimus Brutus in 48 BC, recalling his service in Gaul. The obverse features the head of Mars, and the reverse shows Gallic carnyces and shields.
Battle of Morbihan (in French, Rome is in red, Veneti in green)
Campaign map of 56 BC. Note Caesar's foray into the north of Gaul, Crassus' campaigns in the south, and the Battle of Morbihan off the west Atlantic coast.
Caesar's Rhine Bridge, by John Soane (1814)
Campaign map of 55 BC. Note Caesar's crossing of the Rhine, with Germanic counter movements in orange. Aside from the crossing of the Channel, few other actions were carried out that year.
Illustration of the Romans landing in Britain, featuring the standard bearer of the X legion
Campaign map of 54 BC. Tribes that revolted have flame icons near their name. Note the Gallic victory over Sabinus in northern Gaul, and Caesar's rush to relieve Cicero.
Denarius minted by L. Hostilius Saserna, 48 BC, showing the head of a captive Gaul, and a Britonic chariot on the reverse. Coin Expert Michael Crawford rejects the theory of several historians that the head on the obverse is that of Vercingetorix.
Campaign map of 53 BC. Again, revolting tribes are shown with flame icons. Despite having been conquered the prior year, Britain is not shaded in red, as it was not a territorial acquisition: the Britons had only been made tributaries.
Vercingétorix's Memorial in Alesia, where he made his last stand
Campaign map 52 BC. Most of south and central Gaul is in revolt. Note the Gallic victory at the battle of Gergovia, and Caesar's rush north from Rome.
Modern recreation of the Alesia fortifications, featuring rows of stakes in front of a moat, a high banked approach, and regular towers for Roman sentries
Campaign map of 51 BC. The last major revolts are put down, and mop-up operations occur in the southwest.
Gaul in 50 BC: fully conquered.
Gold stater of Vercingetorix, 53–52 BC.
A page from an 1864 printing of the Commentarii, made by Parrish & Willingham, a Confederate publisher during the American Civil War
Denarius from 48 BC, thought to depict an allegory of Gaul with a carnyx on the obverse and Diana of Ephesus with a stag on the reverse

Through his influence as part of the First Triumvirate, the political alliance which comprised Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey, and himself, during his consulship, Caesar had secured his assignment as proconsul (governor) to two provinces, Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, by passage of the Lex Vatinia.

The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882)

Spartacus

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Thracian gladiator who, along with Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.

Thracian gladiator who, along with Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.

The Death of Spartacus by Hermann Vogel (1882)
Balkan tribes, including the Maedi ("Maidoi", on map).
The extent of the Roman Republic at 100 BC.
A 19th-century depiction of the fall of Spartacus by the Italian Nicola Sanesi (1818–1889)
Viva Spartaco, Spartaco a Rosarno: graffiti connecting Spartacus with 2010 Rosarno riots between locals and migrant farm workers
Spartacus, marble sculpture by Denis Foyatier (1830), Louvre Museum

Alarmed at the continued threat posed by the slaves, the Senate charged Marcus Licinius Crassus, the wealthiest man in Rome and the only volunteer for the position, with ending the rebellion.

At this time, the legions of Pompey returned from Hispania and were ordered by the Senate to head south to aid Crassus.

Coin of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius

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Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius (c.

Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius (c.

Coin of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius
Fantasy portrait of Metellus Pius from Guillaume Rouillé's Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum

He served alongside Pompey slowly grinding down the rebels from 79 to 72/71 BC. For his victories during the Sertorian War he was granted a Triumph.

He was joined by Marcus Licinius Crassus, but both men fell out, and Crassus was forced to leave and eventually join up with Sulla in Greece.

Depiction of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus. Fabius was dictator in 217 BC.

Roman dictator

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Extraordinary magistrate in the Roman Republic endowed with full authority to resolve some specific problem to which he had been assigned.

Extraordinary magistrate in the Roman Republic endowed with full authority to resolve some specific problem to which he had been assigned.

Depiction of Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus. Fabius was dictator in 217 BC.
Head presumed to be that of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Sulla was dictator from 82–79 BC.
Depiction of the Assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (mid 19th century).

One version of the supposed First Catilinarian conspiracy c. 65 BC (which itself is now held in modern scholarship to be fictitious) related by Suetonius would have had the creation of a dictatorship led by Marcus Licinius Crassus with Julius Caesar as magister equitum.

The later consulship of Pompey in 52 BC also is reported to have been initially intended as a dictatorship; it was, however, aborted by his election as sole consul (without colleague) to restore order.

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Sulla's civil war

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Fought between the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his opponents, the Cinna-Marius faction , in the years 83–81 BC. The war ended with a decisive battle just outside Rome itself.

Fought between the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his opponents, the Cinna-Marius faction , in the years 83–81 BC. The war ended with a decisive battle just outside Rome itself.

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As soon as he had set foot in Italy, the outlawed nobles and old Sullan supporters who had survived the Marian-Cinna regime flocked to his banner. The most prominent among them were Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Lucius Marcius Philippus. Metellus and Crassus did so at the head of their own independently-raised armies.

Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey), son of Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, raised three legions from among his father's veterans in his native Picenum and, defeating and outmanoeuvering the Marian forces, he made his way to join Sulla. When Pompey met Sulla, he addressed him as Imperator.

Lucca

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City and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio River, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea.

City and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio River, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea.

Lucca Cathedral
Piazza dell'Anfiteatro and the Basilica of San Frediano
Palazzo Pfanner, garden view
Palazzo Ducale
A stretch of the walls
Via Fillungo view from the Clock Tower
Autumn atop bastions
View of Lucca from the Clock Tower
The courtyard of Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Mansi
Teatro del Giglio
Puccini's statue on Piazza Cittadella created by Vito Tongiani
San Michele in Foro
San Michele at Antraccoli
Guinigi Tower

At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.

Orodes II's portrait on the obverse of a tetradrachm, showing him wearing a beard and a diadem on his head, Mithradatkert mint

Orodes II

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King of Kings of the Parthian Empire from 57 BC to 37 BC. He was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his elder brother Mithridates IV.

King of Kings of the Parthian Empire from 57 BC to 37 BC. He was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his elder brother Mithridates IV.

Orodes II's portrait on the obverse of a tetradrachm, showing him wearing a beard and a diadem on his head, Mithradatkert mint
Coin of Mithridates IV
Map of the Parthian–Roman borders, ca. 55 BC.
Parthian mounted archer, located in Palazzo Madama, Turin.
Coin of Quintus Labienus
Regular coin of Orodes II with a seated archer on the reverse
Coin of Orodes II with Tyche-Khvarenah on the reverse

Meanwhile, the Roman general and triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus had made an attempt to extend his share of Roman territory by eastward conquest.

During the Roman Republican civil wars, the Parthians sided first with Pompey and then with Brutus and Cassius, but took no action until 40 BC, when Pacorus, assisted by the Roman deserter Quintus Labienus, conquered a great part of Syria and Asia Minor, but was defeated and killed by Ventidius in 38 BC. Orodes, who was deeply afflicted by the death of his favourite son, relinquished the throne to his son Phraates IV, and died soon afterward.

Modern portrait at Chaeronea, based on a bust from Delphi tentatively identified as Plutarch.

Plutarch

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Greek Middle Platonist philosopher, historian, biographer, essayist, and priest at the Temple of Apollo in Delphi.

Greek Middle Platonist philosopher, historian, biographer, essayist, and priest at the Temple of Apollo in Delphi.

Modern portrait at Chaeronea, based on a bust from Delphi tentatively identified as Plutarch.
Ruins of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, where Plutarch served as one of the priests responsible for interpreting the predictions of the Pythia.
Portrait of a philosopher, and a hermaic stele at the Delphi Archaeological Museum
Plutarch in the Nuremberg Chronicle
A page from the 1470 Ulrich Han printing of Plutarch's Parallel Lives
Moralia, 1531
A bust of the early Greek historian Herodotus, whom Plutarch criticized in On the Malice of Herodotus

Extant Lives include those on Solon, Themistocles, Aristides, Agesilaus II, Pericles, Alcibiades, Nicias, Demosthenes, Pelopidas, Philopoemen, Timoleon, Dion of Syracuse, Eumenes, Alexander the Great, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Coriolanus, Theseus, Aemilius Paullus, Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Marius, Sulla, Sertorius, Lucullus, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Cicero, Cato the Elder, Mark Antony, and Marcus Junius Brutus.

The first volume, Roman Lives, first published in 1954, presents the translations of Joseph G. Liebes to the biographies of Coriolanus, Fabius Maximus, Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus, Cato the Elder and Cato the Younger, Gaius Marius, Sulla, Sertorius, Lucullus, Pompey, Crassus, Cicero, Julius Caesar, Brutus and Mark Anthony.

Ruins of insulae

Plebeians

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In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census, or in other words "commoners".

In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census, or in other words "commoners".

Ruins of insulae
Plebes (first-year students) marching in front of Bancroft Hall, United States Naval Academy

Marius and Cicero are notable examples of novi homines (new men) in the late Republic, when many of Rome's richest and most powerful men – such as Lucullus, Marcus Crassus, and Pompey – were plebeian nobles.