Marcus Licinius Crassus

Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen
A Roman marble head of the triumvir Marcus Licinius Crassus, mid-1st century BC, Grand Palais, Paris
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy
From left to right: Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Pompey the Great
Denarius minted by Publius Licinius Crassus, son of the triumvir Marcus, as monetalis in 55 BC; on the obverse is a laureate bust of Venus, perhaps in honor of his commanding officer Julius Caesar; on the reverse is an unidentified female figure, perhaps representing Gaul
"The torture of Crassus," 1530s, Louvre

Roman general and statesman who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

- Marcus Licinius Crassus
Bust of Crassus, in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

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Mounted archery in Tibet

Mounted archery

Cavalryman armed with a bow and able to shoot while riding from horseback.

Cavalryman armed with a bow and able to shoot while riding from horseback.

Mounted archery in Tibet
Japanese mounted archers in the Gosannen War, 14th century painting by Hidanokami Korehisa
Young prince (later Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I) hunting for birds as a horsed archer. Woodcut by Albrecht Dürer.
A Timurid drawing of an Ilkhanid horse archer. Signed (lower right) Muhammad ibn Mahmudshah al-Khayyam Iran, early 15th century. Ink and gold on paper
Assyrian relief of a mounted archer
Parthian horse archer shooting at full gallop, undated relief at the Palazzo Madama, Turin.
16th-century Muscovite cavalry.
Qing Dynasty mounted archers face off against Dzungar mounted musketeers.
Bashkirs and Cossacks fighting French infantry with bows and lances at the Battle of Leipzig (1813).
Bashkir Horse Archers in Paris 1814.
Wall fragment from a Chinese tomb, with an incised relief decoration showing a hunting scene with mounted archery, Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) National Museum of Oriental Art, Rome
Yabusame archer on horseback

The Roman general Crassus led a large army, with inadequate cavalry and missile troops, to catastrophe against Parthian horse archers and cataphracts at the Battle of Carrhae.

A 15th century depiction of Jesus crucified between the two thieves

Crucifixion

Method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross or beam and left to hang until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.

Method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross or beam and left to hang until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.

A 15th century depiction of Jesus crucified between the two thieves
Gabriel von Max's 1866 painting Martyress depicts a crucified young woman and a young man laying flowers at her feet
Crucifixion window by Henry E. Sharp, 1872, in St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, Charleston, South Carolina
Early Meiji period crucifixion (c. 1865–1868), Yokohama, Japan. A 25-year-old servant, Sokichi, was executed by crucifixion for murdering his employer's son during the course of a robbery. He was affixed by tying to a stake with two cross-pieces.
The Twenty Six Martyrs of Japan
Poster showing a German soldier nailing a man to a tree, as American soldiers come to his rescue. Published in Manila by Bureau of Printing (1917).
Prisoner kneeling on chains, thumbs supporting arms, photographic print on stereo card, Mukden, China (c. 1906)
Devotional crucifixion in San Fernando, Pampanga, Philippines, Easter 2006
Sculpture construction: Crucifixion, homage to Mondrian, by Barbara Hepworth, United Kingdom (2007)
Allegory of Poland (1914–1918), postcard by Sergey Solomko
Car-float at the feast of the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos, Colonia Doctores, Mexico City (2011)
Antisemitic American political cartoon, Sound Money magazine, April 15, 1896 issue
Protester tied to a cross in Washington D.C. (1970)
Crucifixion, by Jan Van Eyck (c. 1430-1440)
Christ crucified, by Diego Velázquez (1632)

Notorious mass crucifixions followed the Third Servile War in 73–71 BC (the slave rebellion under Spartacus), other Roman civil wars in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Crassus ordered the crucifixion of 6,000 of Spartacus' followers who had been hunted down and captured after his defeat in battle.

Lucca

City and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio River, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea.

City and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio River, in a fertile plain near the Ligurian Sea.

Lucca Cathedral
Piazza dell'Anfiteatro and the Basilica of San Frediano
Palazzo Pfanner, garden view
Palazzo Ducale
A stretch of the walls
Via Fillungo view from the Clock Tower
Autumn atop bastions
View of Lucca from the Clock Tower
The courtyard of Museo Nazionale di Palazzo Mansi
Teatro del Giglio
Puccini's statue on Piazza Cittadella created by Vito Tongiani
San Michele in Foro
San Michele at Antraccoli
Guinigi Tower

At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate.

Harran

Major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is in the modern village of Harran, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.

Major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is in the modern village of Harran, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.

Harran and other major cities of ancient Syria
Harran beehive houses
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Traditional mud brick "beehive" houses in the village of Harran, Turkey
Harran beehive houses
Centerpiece of the GAP project, Atatürk Dam
Districts of Şanlıurfa
Abraham departs out of Haran by Francesco Bassano

In Roman times, Harran was known as Carrhae and was the location of the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BCE, in which the Parthians, commanded by general Surena, defeated a large Roman army under the command of Crassus, who was killed.

Artavasdes II's portrait on the obverse of a drachm, showing him wearing a tiara

Artavasdes II of Armenia

King of Armenia from 55 BC to 34 BC. A member of the Artaxiad Dynasty, he was the son and successor of Tigranes the Great ((r.

King of Armenia from 55 BC to 34 BC. A member of the Artaxiad Dynasty, he was the son and successor of Tigranes the Great ((r.

Artavasdes II's portrait on the obverse of a drachm, showing him wearing a tiara

In c. 54, Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of the Roman triumvirs, who had become proconsul of Syria, had been preparing to invade the Parthian realm.

2nd-century AD Roman statue of a Virgo Vestalis Maxima (National Roman Museum)

Vestal Virgin

In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Vestālēs, singular Vestālis ) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.

In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Vestālēs, singular Vestālis ) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.

2nd-century AD Roman statue of a Virgo Vestalis Maxima (National Roman Museum)
1st-century BC (43–39 BC) aureus depicting a seated Vestal Virgin marked
Relief of the Vestal Virgins at a banquet, found in 1935 near Rome's Via del Corso (Museum of the Ara Pacis)
House of the Vestals and Temple of Vesta from the Palatine
The most prominent feature of the ruins that were once the Temple of Vesta is the hearth (seen here in the foreground).
Early 18th-century depiction of the dedication of a Vestal, by Alessandro Marchesini
Statue of Flavia Publicia in the House of the Vestals
In the Temple of Vesta by, 1902
A reconstruction of the House of the Vestals by Christian Hülsen (1905)
Statue of the Vestal Virgin Flavia Publicia in the House of the Vestals
Bronze statue of Aquilia Severa, a vestal virgin whom the emperor Elagabalus ((r. 218 – 222)) forced to marry (National Archaeological Museum, Athens)
Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I (1583) by Quentin Metsys the Younger
Vestal Virgin (1677–1730) by Jean Raoux
Madame Henriette de France as a Vestal Virgin (1749) by Jean-Marc Nattier
Portrait of a Woman as a Vestal Virgin (1770s) by Angelica Kauffman

Licinia (flourished 1st century) was supposedly courted by her kinsman, the so-called "triumvir" Marcus Licinius Crassus – who in fact wanted her property. This relationship gave rise to rumors. Plutarch says: "And yet when he was further on in years, he was accused of criminal intimacy with Licinia, one of the Vestal virgins and Licinia was formally prosecuted by a certain Plotius. Now Licinia was the owner of a pleasant villa in the suburbs which Crassus wished to get at a low price, and it was for this reason that he was forever hovering about the woman and paying his court to her, until he fell under the abominable suspicion. And in a way it was his avarice that absolved him from the charge of corrupting the Vestal, and he was acquitted by the judges. But he did not let Licinia go until he had acquired her property." Licinia became a Vestal in 85 and remained a Vestal until 61.

Historical reenactment of a Sassanid-era cataphract, complete with a full set of scale armor for the horse. The rider is covered by extensive mail armor.

Cataphract

Form of armored heavy cavalryman that originated in Persia and was fielded in ancient warfare throughout Eurasia and Northern Africa.

Form of armored heavy cavalryman that originated in Persia and was fielded in ancient warfare throughout Eurasia and Northern Africa.

Historical reenactment of a Sassanid-era cataphract, complete with a full set of scale armor for the horse. The rider is covered by extensive mail armor.
Sculpture of a Sasanian cataphract in Taq-e Bostan, Iran. It is One of the oldest depictions of a cataphract.
The extent circa 170 BC of the Iranian Scythians and Parthians, to whom the first recorded use of true cataphract-like cavalry can be attributed in antiquity.
Chanfron, Northern Yan
A stone-etched relief depicting a Parthian cataphract fighting against a lion. Housed in the British Museum.
Three examples of the various styles of interweaving and wire threading that were commonly employed in the creation of cataphract scale armor to form a stiffened, "armored shell" with which to protect the horse.
Breakdown of a fully armoured Chinese cataphract
Equestrian relief at Firuzabad, Iran showing Cataphracts dueling with lances
The cataphract-style parade armor of a Saka (Scythian) royal from the Issyk kurgan, dubbed "Golden Man". The overlapping golden scales are typical of cataphract armor.
Two heavily armored noblemen dueling on horseback with kontos; Sasanian era silver plate with gold coating, Azerbaijan Museum, Tabriz, Iran
A depiction of Sarmatian cataphracts fleeing from Roman cavalry during the Dacian wars circa 101 AD, at Trajan's Column in Rome

The Romans fought a prolonged and indecisive campaign in the East against the Parthians beginning in 53 BC, commencing with the defeat of Marcus Licinius Crassus (close benefactor of Julius Caesar) and his 35,000 legionaries at Carrhae.

Ruins of insulae

Plebeians

In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census, or in other words "commoners".

In ancient Rome, the plebeians (also called plebs) were the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census, or in other words "commoners".

Ruins of insulae
Plebes (first-year students) marching in front of Bancroft Hall, United States Naval Academy

Marius and Cicero are notable examples of novi homines (new men) in the late Republic, when many of Rome's richest and most powerful men – such as Lucullus, Marcus Crassus, and Pompey – were plebeian nobles.

Porta Collina

Battle of the Colline Gate

The final and decisive battle of the civil war between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the Marians.

The final and decisive battle of the civil war between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the Marians.

Porta Collina

That is when messengers arrived from Marcus Licinius Crassus who had taken command of the right wing while Sulla gave his full attention to the left.

Relief from the "Hephthalite bowl", depicting a Parthian shot

Parthian shot

Light cavalry hit-and-run tactic made famous by the Parthians, an ancient Iranian people.

Light cavalry hit-and-run tactic made famous by the Parthians, an ancient Iranian people.

Relief from the "Hephthalite bowl", depicting a Parthian shot
Pursuit of Cuman horsemen (right) by the Hungarian King Ladislaus I (left), church of Kraskovo, Slovakia, 14th century

The Parthians used the tactic to great effect in their victory over the Roman general Crassus in the Battle of Carrhae.