Mariana Trench

Marianas TrenchMarianadeepest knownMarina Trenchthe deepest ocean trenchtrench
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 km east of the Mariana Islands; it is the deepest trench in the world.wikipedia
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Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 km east of the Mariana Islands; it is the deepest trench in the world.
Its mean depth is 4000 m. The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10911 m. The western Pacific has many peripheral seas.

Challenger Deep

Challenger Deep, Earthdeepest dive in the Pacificdeepest known point
The maximum known depth is 10984 m (± 25 m) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep.
It is located in the Pacific Ocean, at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands group.

Oceanic trench

trenchtrenchesocean trench
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 km east of the Mariana Islands; it is the deepest trench in the world.
The greatest ocean depth measured is in the Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench, at a depth of 11,034 m below sea level.

Mariana Islands

MarianasMarianas IslandsMariana
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 km east of the Mariana Islands; it is the deepest trench in the world.
The lowest point on the Earth's crust, the Mariana Trench, is near the islands and is named after them.

Deep sea

deep-seadeep oceandeep
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean about 200 km east of the Mariana Islands; it is the deepest trench in the world.
In 1960, the Bathyscaphe Trieste descended to the bottom of the Mariana Trench near Guam, at 10911 m, the deepest known spot in any ocean.

Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc

Izu-Bonin-Mariana ArcKyushu-Palau RidgeIzu-Bonin-Mariana
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates.
It is the site of the deepest gash in Earth's solid surface, the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench.

Mariana Plate

In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west.
The Mariana Plate is a micro tectonic plate located west of the Mariana Trench which forms the basement of the Mariana Islands which form part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc.

Convergent boundary

convergent plate boundaryconvergenceconvergent boundaries
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates.
An oceanic trench, the Mariana Trench, is the deepest point of the ocean at a depth of approximately 11,000 m.

Sirena Deep

HMRG DeepHawaii Mapping Research GroupHMRG (Hawaii Mapping Research Group) Deep
This new spot was named the HMRG (Hawaii Mapping Research Group) Deep, after the group of scientists who discovered it.
It lies along the Mariana Trench, 200 kilometers to the east of the Challenger Deep and 145 km south of Guam.

Kaikō ROV

KaikōKAIKO1995
In 1984, the Japanese survey vessel Takuyō collected data from the Mariana Trench using a narrow, multi-beam echo sounder; it reported a maximum depth of 10924 m, also reported as 10920 m ±10 m. Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO reached the deepest area of the Mariana Trench and made the deepest diving record of 10911 m on 24 March 1995. This was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1996 and Nereus in 2009.
This depression, located at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands group, is the deepest surveyed point of the World Ocean.

Pacific Plate

PacificPacific tectonic platePacific crust
In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west.
The western side, the plate is bounded by the Okhotsk Plate at the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the Japan Trench, forms a convergent boundary by subducting under the Philippine Sea Plate creating the Mariana Trench, has a transform boundary with the Caroline Plate, and has a collision boundary with the North Bismarck Plate.

Bathyscaphe Trieste

Triestebathyscaphe ''TriesteTrieste 1
The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.
Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about 10911 m, in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific.

Island arc

island arcsarcisland-arc
The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench.

Guam

Territory of GuamGUGuamanian
It was discovered while scientists from the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology were completing a survey around Guam; they used a sonar mapping system towed behind the research ship to conduct the survey.
Guam is the closest land mass to the Mariana Trench, the deep subduction zone that runs east of the Marianas.

Don Walsh

Commander Don Walsh, USNDon Walsh, Ph.D.Donald Walsh
The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.
He and Jacques Piccard were aboard the bathyscaphe Trieste when it made a record maximum descent into the Mariana Trench on January 23, 1960, the deepest point of the world's oceans.

Jacques Piccard

Hon. Jacques PiccardJacques Ernest Piccard
The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.
In the Challenger Deep, he and Lt. Don Walsh of the United States Navy were the first people to explore the deepest part of the world's ocean, and the deepest location on the surface of Earth's crust, the Mariana Trench, located in the western North Pacific Ocean.

James Cameron

CameronJim CameronJames Cameron’s
The first three expeditions directly measured very similar depths of 10902 to 10,916 m. The fourth was made by Canadian film director James Cameron in 2012.
In 2012, Cameron became the first person to perform a solo descent to the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the Earth's ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible.

Subduction

subduction zonesubductedsubducting
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates. In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west.

Nereus (underwater vehicle)

Nereus2009HROV Nereus
This was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1996 and Nereus in 2009.
On this dive the Nereus reached a depth of 35768 ft, making the Nereus the world's second-deepest-diving vehicle in operation at the time, and the first since 1998 to explore the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean known.

HMS Challenger (1931)

HMS ''ChallengerChallenger IIHMS ''Challenger II
In 1951, Challenger II surveyed the trench using echo sounding, a much more precise and vastly easier way to measure depth than the sounding equipment and drag lines used in the original expedition.
It was on this mission, in 1951 that Challenger surveyed the Mariana Trench near Guam, including the deepest known point in the oceans, 11033 m deep at its maximum, near 11.35°N, 142.2°W.

Upper mantle (Earth)

upper mantle
These volcanic islands are caused by flux melting of the upper mantle due to release of water that is trapped in minerals of the subducted portion of the Pacific Plate.
The previous record was held by the U.S. vessel Glomar Challenger, which in 1978 drilled to 7,049.5 meters (23,130 feet) below sea level in the Mariana Trench.

Victor Vescovo

Five Deeps ExpeditionVescovo, Victor
In April 2019 Victor Vescovo achieved a new record descent to 10,928 metres (35,849 ft.).
In April 2019, Vescovo descended nearly 11 km to the deepest place in the ocean – the Challenger Deep in Pacific Ocean's Mariana Trench.

Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National MonumentMarianas Trench Marine
* Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, United States national monument at the trench.
The Mariana Trench Marine National Monument consists of 95,216 square miles (60,938,240 acres).

Deepsea Challenger

Deepsea Challenge 3DDeepsea ChallengeDVC 1
On 26 March, he reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the submersible vessel Deepsea Challenger, diving to a depth of 10,908m.
On 26 March 2012 it was reported that it had reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

Flatfish

Pleuronectiformesflat fishPleuronectoidei
The expedition conducted in 1960 claimed to have observed, with great surprise because of the high pressure, large creatures living at the bottom, such as a flatfish about 30 cm long, and shrimp.
An observation of a flatfish from the Bathyscaphe Trieste at the bottom of the Mariana Trench at a depth of almost 11 km has been questioned by fish experts, and recent authorities do not recognize it as valid.