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Pacific Ocean

PacificWestern PacificSouth Pacific
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean approximately 200 km east of the Mariana Islands, and has the deepest natural trench in the world.
Its mean depth is 4,000 m . The Mariana Trench in the western North Pacific is the deepest point in the world, reaching a depth of 10,911 m. The western Pacific has many peripheral seas.

Challenger Deep

Challenger Deep)Challenger Deep, Earthdeepest dive in the Pacific
The maximum known depth is 10994 m (± 40 m) at the southern end of a small slot-shaped valley in its floor known as the Challenger Deep.
It is in the Pacific Ocean, at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands group.

Mariana Islands

MarianasMarianaMariana Archipelago
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean approximately 200 km east of the Mariana Islands, and has the deepest natural trench in the world.
The lowest point on the Earth's crust, the Mariana Trench, is near the islands and is named after them.

Deep sea

deep-seadeep oceandeep-ocean
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is located in the western Pacific Ocean approximately 200 km east of the Mariana Islands, and has the deepest natural trench in the world.
In 1960, the Bathyscaphe Trieste descended to the bottom of the Mariana Trench near Guam, at 10911 m, the deepest known spot in any ocean.

Izu–Bonin–Mariana Arc

Izu-Bonin-MarianaKyushu-Palau RidgeMariana Arc
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates.
It is most famous for being the site of the deepest gash in Earth's solid surface, the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench.

Mariana Plate

In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west.
The Mariana Plate is a micro tectonic plate located west of the Mariana Trench which forms the basement of the Mariana Islands which form part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc.

Convergent boundary

convergent plate boundaryconvergenceconvergent boundaries
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates.
An oceanic trench, the Mariana Trench, is the deepest point of the ocean at a depth of approximately 11,000 m.

Sirena Deep

HMRG (Hawaii Mapping Research Group) Deep
This new spot was named the HMRG (Hawaii Mapping Research Group) Deep, after the group of scientists who discovered it.
It lies along the Mariana Trench, 200 kilometers to the east of the Challenger Deep and 145 km south of Guam.

Kaikō ROV

KAIKOKaikō1995
In 1984, the Japanese survey vessel Takuyō collected data from the Mariana Trench using a narrow, multi-beam echo sounder; it reported a maximum depth of 10924 m, also reported as 10920 m ±10 m. Remotely Operated Vehicle KAIKO reached the deepest area of the Mariana Trench and made the deepest diving record of 10911 m on March 24, 1995. This was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1996 and Nereus in 2009.
This depression, located at the southern end of the Mariana Trench near the Mariana Islands group, is the deepest surveyed point of the World Ocean.

Pacific Plate

PacificPacific tectonic platePacific crust
In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west.
The western side, the plate is bounded by the Okhotsk Plate at the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the Japan Trench, forms a convergent boundary by subducting under the Philippine Sea Plate creating the Mariana Trench, has a transform boundary with the Caroline Plate, and has a collision boundary with the North Bismarck Plate.

Island arc

island arcsarcisland-arc
The islands are part of the island arc that is formed on an over-riding plate, called the Mariana Plate (also named for the islands), on the western side of the trench.

Bathyscaphe Trieste

Triestebathyscaphe ''TriesteTrieste 1
The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.
Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about 10911 m, in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific.

Don Walsh

Commander Don Walsh, USNDon Walsh, Ph.D.Donald Walsh
The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.
He and Jacques Piccard were aboard the bathyscaphe Trieste when it made a record maximum descent into the Mariana Trench on January 23, 1960, the deepest point of the world's oceans.

Jacques Piccard

Hon. Jacques Piccard
The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.
In the Challenger Deep, he and Lt. Don Walsh of the United States Navy were the first people to explore the deepest part of the world's ocean, and the deepest location on the surface of Earth's crust, the Mariana Trench, located in the western North Pacific Ocean.

James Cameron

CameronJames Cameron’sJim
The first three expeditions directly measured very similar depths of 10,902 to 10,916 m. The fourth was made by Canadian film director James Cameron in 2012.
On March 26, 2012, Cameron reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean, in the Deepsea Challenger submersible.

Subduction

subduction zonesubductedsubducting
The Mariana Trench is part of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction system that forms the boundary between two tectonic plates. In this system, the western edge of one plate, the Pacific Plate, is subducted (i.e., thrust) beneath the smaller Mariana Plate that lies to the west. Like other oceanic trenches, the Mariana Trench has been proposed as a site for nuclear waste disposal, in the hope that tectonic plate subduction occurring at the site might eventually push the nuclear waste deep into the Earth's mantle, the second layer of the Earth.
Steep-angle subduction (subducting angle greater than 70°) occurs in subduction zones where Earth's oceanic crust and lithosphere are old and thick and have, therefore, lost buoyancy. The steepest dipping subduction zone lies in the Mariana Trench, which is also where the oceanic crust, of Jurassic age, is the oldest on Earth exempting ophiolites. Steep-angle subduction is, in contrast to flat-slab subduction, associated with back-arc extension of crust making volcanic arcs and fragments of continental crust wander away from continents over geological times leaving behind a marginal sea.

Nereus (underwater vehicle)

Nereus2009HROV Nereus
This was followed by the unmanned ROVs Kaikō in 1996 and Nereus in 2009.
On this dive the Nereus reached a depth of 35768 ft, making the Nereus the world's second-deepest-diving vehicle in operation at the time, and the first since 1998 to explore the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the ocean known.

HMS Challenger (1931)

HMS ''ChallengerChallenger IIHMS Challenger
In 1951, Challenger II surveyed the trench using echo sounding, a much more precise and vastly easier way to measure depth than the sounding equipment and drag lines used in the original expedition.
It was on this mission, in 1951 that Challenger surveyed the Mariana Trench near Guam, including the deepest known point in the oceans, 11033 m deep at its maximum, near 11.35°N, 142.2°W.

Bathyscaphe

bathyscapebathyscaph
The first was the manned descent by Swiss-designed, Italian-built, United States Navy-owned bathyscaphe Trieste which reached the bottom at 1:06 pm on 23 January 1960, with Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.
In 1960 Trieste, carrying Piccard's son Jacques Piccard and Lt. Don Walsh, reached the deepest known point on the Earth's surface, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench.

Earth

terrestrialworldGlobal
Like other oceanic trenches, the Mariana Trench has been proposed as a site for nuclear waste disposal, in the hope that tectonic plate subduction occurring at the site might eventually push the nuclear waste deep into the Earth's mantle, the second layer of the Earth.
The average diameter of the reference spheroid is 12742 km. Local topography deviates from this idealized spheroid, although on a global scale these deviations are small compared to Earth's radius: The maximum deviation of only 0.17% is at the Mariana Trench (10911 m below local sea level), whereas Mount Everest (8848 m above local sea level) represents a deviation of 0.14%.

Flatfish

flat fishflat-fishflatfishes
The expedition conducted in 1960 claimed to have observed, with great surprise because of the high pressure, large creatures living at the bottom, such as a flatfish about 30 cm long, and shrimp.
An observation of a flatfish from the Bathyscaphe Trieste at the bottom of the Mariana Trench at a depth of almost 11 km has been questioned by fish experts, and recent authorities do not recognize it as valid.

Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National MonumentMarianas Trench Marine
* Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, United States national monument at the trench.
The Mariana Trench Marine National Monument consists of 95,216 square miles (60,938,240 acres).

Snailfish

LiparidaeliparidSea snail
In December 2014, a new species of snailfish was discovered at a depth of 8145 m, breaking the previous record for the deepest living fish seen on video.
The record was surpassed by a snailfish that was filmed at a depth of 8145 m in December 2014 in the Mariana Trench, and extended in May 2017 when another was filmed at a depth of 8178 m in the Mariana Trench.

Deepsea Challenger

Deepsea Challenge 3DJames Cameron's Deep Sea Challenge
On 26 March, he reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench in the submersible vessel Deepsea Challenger.
On 26 March 2012 it was reported that it had reached the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

Hadal zone

hadalhadopelagicdeep feature
Furthermore, plate subduction zones are associated with very large megathrust earthquakes, the effects of which are unpredictable for the safety of long-term disposal of nuclear wastes within the hadopelagic ecosystem.
The hadal zone can reach far below 6000 m deep; the deepest known extends to 10911 m. At such depths the pressure in the hadal zone exceeds 1100 atm.