Mariner 9

Mariner 99first spacecraft to orbit MarsMariner 9 Orbiter
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.wikipedia
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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

Cape CanaveralCCAFSCape Kennedy
Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet – only narrowly beating the Soviets' Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived within a month.
It was also the launch site for all of the first spacecraft to (separately) fly past each of the planets in the Solar System (1962–1977), the first spacecraft to orbit Mars (1971) and roam its surface (1996), the first American spacecraft to orbit and land on Venus (1978), the first spacecraft to orbit Saturn (2004), and to orbit Mercury (2011), and the first spacecraft to leave the Solar System (1977).

Mariner program

MarinerMariner missionsMariner probes
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
The planned Mariner Jupiter-Saturn vehicles were adapted into the Voyager program, while the Viking program orbiters were enlarged versions of the Mariner 9 spacecraft.

Mariner 8

Mariner
Under original plans, a dual mission was to be flown like Mariners 6–7, however the launch failure of Mariner 8 ruined this scheme and forced NASA planners to fall back on a simpler one-probe mission.
Mariner-H (Mariner Mars '71), also commonly known as Mariner 8, was (along with Mariner 9) part of the Mariner Mars '71 project.

Mars 3

3 Mars 3 landerMars 3 lander
Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet – only narrowly beating the Soviets' Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived within a month.
When Mariner 9 arrived and successfully orbited Mars on 14 November 1971, just two weeks prior to Mars 2 and Mars 3, planetary scientists were surprised to find the atmosphere was thick with "a planet-wide robe of dust, the largest storm ever observed".

Mars

MartianCoordinatesplanet Mars
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
After the spacecraft Mariner 9 provided extensive imagery of Mars in 1972, a small crater (later called Airy-0), located in the Sinus Meridiani ("Middle Bay" or "Meridian Bay"), was chosen for the definition of 0.0° longitude to coincide with the original selection.

Mars 2

Mars 2 landerMars 2 Orbiter and LanderMars-2
Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet – only narrowly beating the Soviets' Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived within a month.
When Mariner 9 arrived and successfully orbited Mars on 14 November 1971, just two weeks prior to Mars 2 and Mars 3, planetary scientists were surprised to find the atmosphere was thick with "a planet-wide robe of dust, the largest storm ever observed."

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Advisory CouncilU.S. space program
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
Probes launched under the Mariner program were also the first to make a planetary flyby (Mariner 2), to take the first pictures from another planet (Mariner 4), the first planetary orbiter (Mariner 9), and the first to make a gravity assist maneuver (Mariner 10).

Valles Marineris

Valles Marinerisequatorial grand canyon
The images revealed river beds, craters, massive extinct volcanoes (such as Olympus Mons, the largest known volcano in the Solar System; Mariner 9 led directly to its reclassification from Nix Olympica), canyons (including the Valles Marineris, a system of canyons over about 2500 mi long), evidence of wind and water erosion and deposition, weather fronts, fogs, and more.
Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971–72 which discovered it) is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region.

Viking program

VikingViking OrbiterViking Lander
The findings from the Mariner 9 mission underpinned the later Viking program.
Each orbiter, based on the earlier Mariner 9 spacecraft, was an octagon approximately 2.5 m across.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to orbit another planet.

Climate of Mars

climateClimate on Marsweather
When Mariner 9 arrived at Mars on November 14, 1971, planetary scientists were surprised to find the atmosphere was thick with "a planet-wide robe of dust, the largest storm ever observed."
When the Mariner 9 probe arrived at Mars in 1971, scientists expected to see crisp new pictures of surface detail.

Hadamard code

Walsh codeWalsh–Hadamard codebinary orthogonal codes
Since the flown hardware was constrained with regards to weight, power consumption, storage, and computing power, some considerations had to be put into choosing an FEC, and it was decided to use a Hadamard code for Mariner 9.
In 1971, the code was used to transmit photos of Mars back to Earth from the NASA space probe Mariner 9.

List of missions to Mars

List of missions to the moons of Mars25 of 55 missions through 2019future Mars missions
One example is Mariner 9, which entered Mars orbit in 1971 and is expected to remain in orbit until approximately 2022, when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian atmosphere and either burn up or crash into the planet's surface.

Exploration of Mars

Mars explorationMars missionmanned mission to Mars
On November 14, 1971 Mariner 9 became the first space probe to orbit another planet when it entered into orbit around Mars.

Olympus Mons

Olympus MonsOlympus Mons (''Mount Olympus'')
The images revealed river beds, craters, massive extinct volcanoes (such as Olympus Mons, the largest known volcano in the Solar System; Mariner 9 led directly to its reclassification from Nix Olympica), canyons (including the Valles Marineris, a system of canyons over about 2500 mi long), evidence of wind and water erosion and deposition, weather fronts, fogs, and more.
The Mariner 9 spacecraft arrived in orbit around Mars in 1971 during a global dust-storm.

List of Mars orbiters

Mars orbiterMarsorbiter
Mars 2, Mars 3 and Mariner 9 were all launched into space in May 1971, and all entered Mars’ orbit that same year.

Mars flyby

fly by Marsflyby
Mars was not globally mapped until the Mariner 9 orbiter, which over the course of 1972 to 1973 took thousands of images up to 100m a pixel.

Areocentric orbit

Areocentricabove the planet's surfaceMars
The first artificial satellites in areocentric orbit and the first orbiters of another celestial body (other than the Moon) were the U.S. Mariner 9 probe and Soviet Mars 2 and Mars 3 orbiters in 1971, 14 November and 27 November respectively.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
Mariner 9 was launched toward Mars on May 30, 1971 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and reached the planet on November 14 of the same year, becoming the first spacecraft to orbit another planet – only narrowly beating the Soviets' Mars 2 and Mars 3, which both arrived within a month.

Radiometer

radiometersinfrared radiometerradiation detector
An infrared radiometer was included to detect heat sources in search of evidence of volcanic activity.

Atlas-Centaur

Atlas SLV-3D Centaur-D1ARAtlas CentaurAtlas SLV-3C Centaur-D
NASA still held out hope that another Mariner probe and Atlas-Centaur could be readied before the 1971 Mars launch window closed.

Launch window

certain time windowslaunchlaunch opportunity
NASA still held out hope that another Mariner probe and Atlas-Centaur could be readied before the 1971 Mars launch window closed.

Convair

Consolidated VulteeConsolidated Vultee Aircraft CorporationConsolidated-Vultee
Convair also had an available Centaur stage on hand and could have an Atlas readied in time, but the idea was ultimately abandoned for lack of funding.

Electromagnetic interference

interferenceradio frequency interferenceRF interference
The malfunction was traced to a problem in the Centaur's pitch control servoamplifier and because it was not clear if the spacecraft itself had been responsible, RFI testing was conducted on Mariner 9 to ensure the probe was not releasing interference that could cause problems with the Centaur's electronics.