McKinley, aged 15
Hanna's birthplace
Rutherford B. Hayes was McKinley's mentor during and after the Civil War.
Hanna as a boy
McKinley in 1865, just after the war, photograph by Mathew Brady
Mark Hanna, around 1877
Ida Saxton McKinley
Before McKinley, Hanna tried to make John Sherman president.
Katherine McKinley
Joseph B. Foraker
Representative McKinley
William McKinley in the 1870s
'Judge' magazine cover from September 1890, showing McKinley (left) having helped dispatch Speaker Reed's opponent in early-voting Maine, hurrying off with the victor to McKinley's "jerrymandered" Ohio district
Although McKinley did not run in 1892, the Duke Tobacco Company considered him a presidential possibility that year and issued a card for him.
Even after his final run for president in 1884, James G. Blaine was still seen as a possible candidate for the Republican nomination. In this 1890 Puck cartoon, he is startling Reed and McKinley (right) as they make their plans for 1892.
A photograph taken of Mark Hanna after his election as Chairman of the Republican National Committee.
McKinley's close friend and adviser, Mark Hanna
William Jennings Bryan, seen during the 1896 campaign.
Louis Dalrymple cartoon from Puck magazine, June 24, 1896, showing McKinley about to crown himself with the Republican nomination. The "priests" are Hanna (in green) and Representative Charles H. Grosvenor (red); H. H. Kohlsaat is the page holding the robe.
Bryan's whistle-stop tour during the 1896 campaign was unprecedented. Here he addresses a crowd in Wellsville, Ohio.
Before the 1896 convention, McKinley tried to avoid coming down on one side or the other of the currency question. William Allen Rogers's cartoon from Harper's Weekly, June 1896, showing McKinley riding the rail of the currency question.
McKinley (center) with a delegation in front of the famous front porch
William and Ida McKinley (to her husband's left) pose with members of the "Flower Delegation" from Oil City, Pennsylvania, before the McKinley home. Although women could not vote in most states, they might influence male relatives and were encouraged to visit Canton.
An 1896 cartoon by Homer Davenport depicting McKinley as being firmly in Hanna's pocket.
A Man of Mark 1896 Homer Davenport cartoon of McKinley as Hanna's creature, from William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal
In addition to giving speeches from his front porch in 1896, McKinley (lower right) gave orders for the conduct of his campaign from the library of his Canton home.
1896 Electoral vote results
1896 Puck cover showing Hanna (left) and McKinley's Thanksgiving dinner—carving up the presidency.
Editorial cartoon intervention in Cuba. Columbia (the American people) reaches out to help oppressed Cuba in 1897 while Uncle Sam (the U.S. government) is blind to the crisis and will not use its powerful guns to help. Judge magazine, February 6, 1897.
A promotional button from Mark Hanna's U.S. Senate campaign.
Signing of the Treaty of Paris
Although the currency question was not as prominent in 1900 as in 1896 this Judge magazine cover shows it still played its part in the campaign.
Annexation of the Republic of Hawaii in 1898
Theodore Roosevelt, President of the United States (1901-1909)
American soldiers scale the walls of Beijing to relieve the siege of the International Legations, August 1900
January 1904 political cartoon depicting Hanna hiding from presidential candidacy
1900 reelection poster with the theme that McKinley has returned prosperity to America
A photo of Senator Hanna taken roughly a year before his death.
McKinley, (right of center) flanked by Georgia Governor Allen D. Candler (front row to McKinley's right) and Gen. William Rufus Shafter, reviewing the Atlanta Peace Jubilee parade, December 15, 1898
Statue of Mark Hanna by Augustus Saint-Gaudens, University Circle, Cleveland
McKinley ran on his record of prosperity and victory in 1900, winning easy re-election over William Jennings Bryan.
"As they go to the polls" 1900 Homer Davenport cartoon suggesting a cozy relationship among Hanna, McKinley, and the trusts.
McKinley entering the Temple of Music on September 6, 1901, shortly before the shots were fired
Artist's conception of the shooting of McKinley
The official Presidential portrait of William McKinley, by Harriet Anderson Stubbs Murphy
Chief Justice Melville Fuller swears in William McKinley as president; outgoing President Grover Cleveland at right
McKinley's tomb in Canton, Ohio
William McKinley Monument by Hermon MacNeil in front of the Ohio Statehouse, Columbus
McKinley Monument by Alexander Phimister Proctor in front of Buffalo City Hall, Buffalo
McKinley on the $500 bill
Louisiana Purchase Exposition stamp (1904) honoring McKinley, who had signed a bill authorizing a subsidy for that upcoming event
McKinley Monument in front of Lucas County Courthouse, Toledo

A friend and political ally of President William McKinley, Hanna used his wealth and business skills to successfully manage McKinley's presidential campaigns in 1896 and 1900.

- Mark Hanna

With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896 amid a deep economic depression.

- William McKinley

20 related topics


Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904

Theodore Roosevelt

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, historian, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

Portrait by Pach Bros., c. 1904
Theodore Roosevelt at age 11
The Roosevelt coat of arms as displayed on Theodore Roosevelt's bookplate, featuring three roses in a meadow (in reference to the family name, which means "rose field" in Dutch).
6-year-old Theodore and 5-year-old Elliott watch Lincoln's funeral procession from the second-floor window of their grandfather's mansion (at top left, facing the camera), Manhattan, April 25, 1865
Roosevelt's taxidermy kit
Roosevelt's birthplace at 28 East 20th Street in Manhattan, New York City
Roosevelt as New York State Assemblyman, 1883
Theodore Roosevelt as Badlands hunter in 1885. New York studio photo.
NYC Police Commissioner Roosevelt walks the beat with journalist Jacob Riis in 1894—Illustration from Riis's autobiography.
The Asiatic Squadron destroying the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay on May 1, 1898
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
Colonel Roosevelt and the Rough Riders after capturing Kettle Hill in Cuba in July 1898, along with members of the 3rd Volunteers and the regular Army black 10th Cavalry
Bureau of Engraving and Printing engraved portrait of Roosevelt as President
Official White House portrait by John Singer Sargent
Roosevelt driving through a sequoia tree tunnel
The U.S.'s intentions to influence the area (especially the Panama Canal construction and control) led to the separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903
1903 cartoon: "Go Away, Little Man, and Don't Bother Me". Roosevelt intimidating Colombia to acquire the Panama Canal Zone.
1904 election results
Roosevelt family at Oyster Bay, circa 1903
Roosevelt shortly after leaving office, October 1910
Roosevelt standing next to the elephant he shot on safari
Punch depicts no-holds-barred fight between Taft and Roosevelt
Roosevelt campaigning for president, 1912
Theodore Roosevelt's medical x-ray on October 14, 1912, after the assassination attempt, showing the bullet that would remain inside his body for life
The bullet-damaged speech and eyeglass case on display at the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace in Manhattan, New York City
From left to right (seated): Fr. John Augustine Zahm, Cândido Rondon, Kermit Roosevelt, Cherrie, Miller, four Brazilians, Roosevelt, Fiala. Only Roosevelt, Kermit, Cherrie, Rondon, and the Brazilians traveled down the River of Doubt.
Former President Theodore Roosevelt in Allentown, Pennsylvania, 1914
Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's Grave at Youngs Memorial Cemetery
Part of the Works of Theodore Roosevelt
Sagamore Hill, Roosevelt's Long Island estate
"The Man of the Hour" Roosevelt as Warrior in 1898 and Peacemaker in 1905 settling war between Russia and Japan
1910 cartoon showing Roosevelt's many roles from 1899 to 1910
Theodore Roosevelt and pilot Hoxsey at St. Louis, October 11, 1910.

He previously served as the 25th vice president under William McKinley from March to September 1901, and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900.

Additionally, Roosevelt was informed by President McKinley and campaign manager Mark Hanna that he was not being considered for the role of vice president due to his actions prior to the Spanish–American War.

William Jennings Bryan

American lawyer, orator and politician.

American lawyer, orator and politician.

Bryan's birthplace in Salem, Illinois
Attorney Mary Baird Bryan, the wife of William Jennings Bryan
A young Bryan
"UNITED SNAKES OF AMERICA" "IN BRYAN WE TRUST" political satire token of 1896, known as "Bryan Money"
Bryan campaigning for president, October 1896
1896 electoral vote results
The United States and its colonial possessions after the Spanish–American War
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
1900 electoral vote results
William J Bryan in 1906 as Moses with new 10 commandments; Puck 19 sept 1906 by Joseph Keppler. Tablet reads: l-Thou shalt have no other leaders before me. II—Thou shalt not make unto thyself any high Protective Tariff. Ill—Eight hours, and no more, shalt thou labor and do all thy work. IV—Thou shalt not graft. V—Thou shalt not elect thy Senators save by Popular Vote. VI—Thou shalt not grant rebates unto thy neighbor. VII—Thou shalt not make combinations in restraint of trade. VIII—Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's income, but shall make him pay a tax upon it. IX—There shall be no more government by injunction. X—Remember Election Day to vote it early. P.S.— When in doubt, ask Me.
Bryan speaking at the 1908 Democratic National Convention
Presidential Campaign button for Bryan
1908 electoral vote results
Bryan attending the 1912 Democratic National Convention
Bryan served as Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson
Cartoon of Secretary of State Bryan reading war news in 1914
Villa Serena, Bryan's home built in 1913 at Miami, Florida
Charles W. and William J. Bryan
At the Scopes Trial, William Jennings Bryan (seated, left) being questioned by Clarence Darrow (standing, right).
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee

In the intensely fought 1896 presidential election, Republican nominee William McKinley emerged triumphant.

McKinley and his campaign manager, Mark Hanna, knew that McKinley could not match Bryan's oratorical skills.

Hobart in 1896

Garret Hobart

The 24th vice president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his death in 1899.

The 24th vice president of the United States, serving from 1897 until his death in 1899.

Hobart in 1896
Hobart as a young boy
Paterson lawyer Socrates Tuttle, who both taught Hobart the law and helped advance his political career
Hobart at his desk, date unknown
Jennie Tuttle Hobart
"Pioneer Cleveland": Puck magazine cartoon showing the Republicans following the path of the gold standard which President Grover Cleveland (right) has blazed. Hobart, in black coat just left of center, wears a campaign ribbon with his name on it, and walks between McKinley and former president Benjamin Harrison (with gray hat).
McKinley (left) and Hobart, photographed in Long Branch, New Jersey during the summer of 1899
Vice President Hobart
Mausoleum of Garret and Jennie Hobart, Cedar Lawn Cemetery, Paterson. Erected 1902.
Statue of Garret Hobart by Philip Martiny, Paterson
McKinley/Hobart campaign poster

Hobart's political views were similar to those of William McKinley, the presumptive Republican presidential candidate.

With New Jersey a key state in the upcoming election, McKinley and his close adviser, future senator Mark Hanna, decided to have the convention select Hobart.

Leon Czolgosz shoots President McKinley with a revolver concealed under a cloth rag. Clipping of a wash drawing by T. Dart Walker.

Assassination of William McKinley

Leon Czolgosz shoots President McKinley with a revolver concealed under a cloth rag. Clipping of a wash drawing by T. Dart Walker.
Leon Czolgosz
William McKinley (to the left of center, with white shirtfront) delivers his final speech.
The "last posed photograph" of President McKinley, taken in the Government Building on September 5, 1901, the day before his assassination. Left to right: Mrs. John Miller Horton, Chairwoman of the Entertainment Committee of the Woman's Board of Managers; John G. Milburn; Manuel de Azpíroz, the Mexican Ambassador; the President; George B. Cortelyou, the President's secretary; Col. John H. Bingham of the Government Board.
President McKinley arrives at the Temple of Music
The operating room at the Exposition hospital
Senator Mark Hanna (left), friend of President McKinley, arriving at the Milburn House after the shooting
Milburn residence, where McKinley died
The assassination site as it appears today

William McKinley, the 25th president of the United States, was shot on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, New York, on September 6, 1901, six months into his second term.

On Saturday, September 7, they were to travel to Cleveland and stay first at the home of businessman and future Ohio governor Myron Herrick, a friend of the President, and then with McKinley's close friend and adviser, Ohio Senator Mark Hanna.

Foraker c. 1902

Joseph B. Foraker

American politician of the Republican Party who served as the 37th governor of Ohio from 1886 to 1890 and as a United States senator from Ohio from 1897 until 1909.

American politician of the Republican Party who served as the 37th governor of Ohio from 1886 to 1890 and as a United States senator from Ohio from 1897 until 1909.

Foraker c. 1902
Depiction of Foraker's "birthplace" from an 1883 campaign biography
Foraker as a captain in the Union Army
Foraker as judge of the Superior Court of Cincinnati (1879 to 1882)
Foraker as governor of Ohio (c. 1886–1890)
An 1885 political cartoon accuses U.S. senator John Sherman (right) and Foraker of "waving the bloody shirt" of the Civil War for political gain
Foraker's card in the Duke Tobacco Company's 1888 "Presidential Possibilities" series
Foraker married Julia Ann Paine Bundy in 1870
Drawing of the opening of the Senate session in December 1902. Foraker's rival Mark Hanna is the shorter man to the right of the clerk; Foraker stands behind Hanna and slightly to his right.
Cartoon and verse satirizing Foraker from the 1907 Gridiron Dinner
Foraker in 1908
Foraker in his final years (c. 1909–1916)

As Ohio governor, he built an alliance with the Republican Party "boss" Mark Hanna, but fell out with him in 1888.

Foraker came to Columbus just before the 1883 state convention, and sounded out state Republican leaders such as Sherman and Congressman William McKinley.

Ida Saxton McKinley

The portrait of Katie that hung on the wall of the McKinley house.
Ida McKinley in an official photograph as First Lady
Ida Saxton McKinley, official White House portrait
The tomb of William and Ida McKinley
The Saxton House, former home of Ida Saxton McKinley, now part of the First Ladies National Historic Site.

Ida McKinley (née Saxton; June 8, 1847 – May 26, 1907) was the first lady of the United States from 1897 until 1901, as the wife of President William McKinley.

"President McKinley has made it pretty hard for the rest of us husbands here in Washington," remarked Senator Mark Hanna.

Hearst, c. 1910

William Randolph Hearst

American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications.

American businessman, newspaper publisher, and politician known for developing the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company, Hearst Communications.

Hearst, c. 1910
An ad asking automakers to place ads in Hearst chain, noting their circulation.
From left to right: Hearst, Robert Vignola and Arthur Brisbane in New York, during the filming of Vignola's The World and His Wife (1920)
Hearst circa 1900.
Cartoonist Rogers in 1906 sees the political uses of Oz: he depicts Hearst as the Scarecrow stuck in his own oozy mud in Harper's Weekly.
Puck magazine published this cartoon in its edition of October 31, 1906. Seen as supporting "Hoist" in his bid for governor are Happy Hooligan, Foxy Grandpa, Alphonse and Gaston, Buster Brown, The Katzenjammer Kids, and Maud the mule. All of these comic strips ran in newspapers owned by Hearst.
Millicent Hearst
Marion Davies
Hearst Castle, California.
Painting of a landscape with a huntsman and dead game (Allegory of the Sense of Smell) by Jan Weenix, 1697, once owned by Hearst

Its coverage of that election was probably the most important of any newspaper in the country, attacking relentlessly the unprecedented role of money in the Republican campaign and the dominating role played by William McKinley's political and financial manager, Mark Hanna, the first national party 'boss' in American history.

Carte-de-visite photo, circa 1882

Levi P. Morton

The 22nd vice president of the United States from 1889 to 1893.

The 22nd vice president of the United States from 1889 to 1893.

Carte-de-visite photo, circa 1882
Brady-Handy photo, circa 1876
From 1889 until 1895, Morton lived at this residence in Washington, DC.
Gubernatorial portrait of Levi P. Morton
Morton in 1908

Morton was a leading contender for the Republican presidential nomination in 1896, but the delegates chose William McKinley.

Morton was then considered for the vice presidential nomination, but McKinley's campaign manager, Mark Hanna, was opposed to the notion, and the nomination went to Garret Hobart.

McKinley and Hobart

1896 Republican National Convention

Held in a temporary structure south of the St. Louis City Hall in Saint Louis, Missouri, from June 16 to June 18, 1896.

Held in a temporary structure south of the St. Louis City Hall in Saint Louis, Missouri, from June 16 to June 18, 1896.

McKinley and Hobart
Inside of the convention hall
<center>Former Governor William McKinley of Ohio</center>
<center>Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed of Maine</center>
<center>Senator Matthew S. Quay of Pennsylvania</center>
<center>Governor Levi P. Morton of New York, former Vice President</center>
<center>Senator William B. Allison of Iowa</center>
<center>1st Presidential Ballot</center>
<center>State Senator Garret A. Hobart of New Jersey</center>
<center>Former Representative Henry Clay Evans of Tennessee</center>
<center>Former Governor Morgan G. Bulkeley of Connecticut</center>
<center>Representative James A. Walker of Virginia</center>
<center>Governor Charles W. Lippitt of Rhode Island</center>

Former Governor William McKinley of Ohio was nominated for president on the first ballot with 661½ votes to 84½ for House Speaker Thomas Brackett Reed of Maine, 61½ votes for Senator Matthew S. Quay of Pennsylvania, 58 votes for Governor Levi P. Morton of New York who was vice president (1889–1893) under President Benjamin Harrison.

However, McKinley's manager, Mark Hanna opposed Morton's addition to the ticket, instead favoring Garret A. Hobart or Minnesota Senator Cushman Kellogg Davis.

Nominees McKinley and Roosevelt

1900 Republican National Convention

Held June 19 to June 21 in the Exposition Auditorium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Held June 19 to June 21 in the Exposition Auditorium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Nominees McKinley and Roosevelt
1900 Republican Convention
<center>Representative Jonathan P. Dolliver
<center>Navy Secretary
<center>Senator William B. Allison of Iowa</center>
<center>Former Interior Secretary
<center>Senator Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana</center>
<center>Secretary of War Elihu Root of New York</center>
<center>Senator John C. Spooner of Wisconsin</center>
<center>Lieutenant Governor
<center>1st Vice Presidential Ballot</center>

Mark Hanna opened the convention.

President William McKinley was unanimously nominated for reelection: no candidate ran against him, although Admiral George Dewey considered a run.