Markup language

markupmarkup languagesdocument markup languagemarked upmark-upmarked-updescriptive markupLanguageMark-up Languagemarking up
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.wikipedia
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Annotation

annotatedannotateannotations
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
An annotation is a metadatum (e.g. a post, explanation, markup) attached to location or other data.

HTML

HyperText Markup Language(X)HTML.html
Some markup languages, such as the widely used HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics—meaning that their specification prescribes how to present the structured data.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.

LaTeX

latex2html
Examples include typesetting instructions such as those found in troff, TeX and LaTeX, or structural markers such as XML tags.
The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references.

XML

Extensible Markup LanguageExtensible Markup Language (XML).xml
Examples include typesetting instructions such as those found in troff, TeX and LaTeX, or structural markers such as XML tags.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

Lightweight markup language

Comparison of lightweight markup languageshumane markup languagelightweight
These are sometimes called lightweight markup languages.
A lightweight markup language (LML), also termed a simple or humane markup language, is a markup language with simple, unobtrusive syntax.

Wiki

wikiswiki markupcity wiki
In recent years, a number of small and largely unstandardized markup languages have been developed to allow authors to create formatted text via web browsers, for use in wikis and web forums. Markdown or the markup language used by Wikipedia are examples of such wiki markup.
In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor.

Markdown

.mdown
Markdown or the markup language used by Wikipedia are examples of such wiki markup.
Its key design goal is readability – that the language be readable as-is, without looking like it has been marked up with tags or formatting instructions, unlike text formatted with a markup language, such as Rich Text Format (RTF) or HTML, which have obvious tags and formatting instructions.

Standard Generalized Markup Language

SGMLISO 8879ISO SGML
In the 1970s, Tunnicliffe led the development of a standard called GenCode for the publishing industry and later was the first chair of the International Organization for Standardization committee that created SGML, the first standard descriptive markup language.
The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents.

Brian Reid (computer scientist)

Brian ReidBrian K. Reid
Brian Reid, in his 1980 dissertation at Carnegie Mellon University, developed the theory and a working implementation of descriptive markup in actual use. The first language to make a clean distinction between structure and presentation was Scribe, developed by Brian Reid and described in his doctoral thesis in 1980.
He developed an early use of a markup language in his 1980 doctoral dissertation.

Presentation semantics

presentation
Some markup languages, such as the widely used HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics—meaning that their specification prescribes how to present the structured data.
Many markup languages like HTML, CSS, DSSSL, XSL-FO or troff have presentation semantics, but others like XML, XLink and XPath do not.

World Wide Web

Webthe webweb-based
HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an instance of Standard Generalized Markup Language or SGML, and follows many of the markup conventions used in the publishing industry in the communication of printed work between authors, editors, and printers.
Berners-Lee continued to stay involved in guiding the development of web standards, such as the markup languages to compose web pages and he advocated his vision of a Semantic Web.

WYSIWYG

what you see is what you getwhat-you-see-is-what-you-getdisplays the user's changes as they are added
The kind of markup used by traditional word-processing systems: binary codes embedded within document text that produce the WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get") effect. Such markup is usually hidden from human users, even authors or editors.
These applications typically used an arbitrary markup language to define the codes/tags.

Typesetting

typesettercompositortypeset
For centuries, this task was done primarily by skilled typographers known as "markup men" or "d markers" who marked up text to indicate what typeface, style, and size should be applied to each part, and then passed the manuscript to others for typesetting by hand.
Early minicomputer-based typesetting software introduced in the 1970s and early 1980s, such as Datalogics Pager, Penta, Atex, Miles 33, Xyvision, troff from Bell Labs, and IBM's Script product with CRT terminals, were better able to drive these electromechanical devices, and used text markup languages to describe type and other page formatting information.

Scribe (markup language)

ScribeSCMLScribe markup language
The first language to make a clean distinction between structure and presentation was Scribe, developed by Brian Reid and described in his doctoral thesis in 1980.
Scribe is a markup language and word processing system which pioneered the use of descriptive markup.

Charles Goldfarb

However, IBM researcher Charles Goldfarb is more commonly seen today as the "father" of markup languages.
He co-invented the concept of markup languages.

Document type definition

DTDDTDsdocument type declaration
SGML specified a syntax for including the markup in documents, as well as one for separately describing what tags were allowed, and where (the Document Type Definition (DTD) or schema).
A document type definition (DTD) is a set of markup declarations that define a document type for an SGML-family markup language (SGML, XML, HTML).

DocBook

DocBook XML
Thus, SGML is properly a meta-language, and many particular markup languages are derived from it. From the late '80s on, most substantial new markup languages have been based on SGML system, including for example TEI and DocBook.
DocBook is a semantic markup language for technical documentation.

IBM Generalized Markup Language

Generalized Markup LanguageGMLIBM GML
Goldfarb hit upon the basic idea while working on a primitive document management system intended for law firms in 1969, and helped invent IBM GML later that same year.
Using GML, a document is marked up with tags that define what the text is, in terms of paragraphs, headers, lists, tables, and so forth.

William W. Tunnicliffe

The first well-known public presentation of markup languages in computer text processing was made by William W. Tunnicliffe at a conference in 1967, although he preferred to call it generic coding. It can be seen as a response to the emergence of programs such as RUNOFF that each used their own control notations, often specific to the target typesetting device.
*Markup language

XHTML

(X)HTMLExtensible HyperText Markup LanguageX
Since January 2000, all W3C Recommendations for HTML have been based on XML rather than SGML, using the abbreviation XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language).
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages.

List of XML markup languages

FDML
For a partial list of these, see List of XML markup languages.
This is a list of notable XML markup languages.

Comparison of document markup languages

Comparison of document markup languages
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of document markup languages.

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
Programming language
Markup languages like XML, HTML, or troff, which define structured data, are not usually considered programming languages.

Curl (programming language)

Curl
Curl (programming language)
Curl is a markup language like HTML—that is, plain text is shown as text; at the same time, Curl includes an object-oriented programming language that supports multiple inheritance.