Markup language

markupmarkup languagestext encodingdocument markup languagemarked upMark-up Languagemarked-upLanguagemarking uptext markup
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.wikipedia
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Annotation

annotatedannotationsannotate
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
Markup languages like XML and HTML annotate text in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from that text.

LaTeX

LaTeX2HTMLHlineLaTeX2e
Early markup systems typically included typesetting instructions, as troff, TeX and LaTeX do, while Scribe and most modern markup systems name components, and later process those names to apply formatting or other processing, as in the case of XML.
The writer uses markup tagging conventions to define the general structure of a document (such as article, book, and letter), to stylise text throughout a document (such as bold and italics), and to add citations and cross-references.

Scribe (markup language)

ScribeSCMLScribe markup language
Early markup systems typically included typesetting instructions, as troff, TeX and LaTeX do, while Scribe and most modern markup systems name components, and later process those names to apply formatting or other processing, as in the case of XML.
Scribe is a markup language and word processing system which pioneered the use of descriptive markup.

HTML

Hypertext Markup LanguageHTML 3.2HTML 4
Some markup languages, such as the widely used HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics—meaning that their specification prescribes generally how to present the structured data on particular media.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

XML

Extensible Markup LanguageXML documentXML parser
Early markup systems typically included typesetting instructions, as troff, TeX and LaTeX do, while Scribe and most modern markup systems name components, and later process those names to apply formatting or other processing, as in the case of XML. HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an application of SGML and XML.
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

DocBook

DocBook XML
Other applications, such as DocBook, Open eBook, JATS and others, are heavily used in the communication of work between authors, editors, and printers.
DocBook is a semantic markup language for technical documentation.

Lightweight markup language

LMLList of lightweight markup languagesComparison of lightweight markup languages
These are sometimes called lightweight markup languages.
A lightweight markup language (LML), also termed a simple or humane markup language, is a markup language with simple, unobtrusive syntax.

Wiki

wikiswiki markupWikitext
In the recent years, a number of small and largely unstandardized markup languages have been developed to allow authors to create formatted text via web browsers, such as the ones used in wikis and in web forums. Markdown and the markup language used by Wikipedia are examples of such wiki markup.
In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor.

World Wide Web

WebWWWthe web
HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an application of SGML and XML.
Berners-Lee continued to stay involved in guiding the development of web standards, such as the markup languages to compose web pages and he advocated his vision of a Semantic Web.

Markdown

GitHub Flavored MarkdownCommonMarkMarkdown Extra
Markdown and the markup language used by Wikipedia are examples of such wiki markup.
Its key design goal is readability – that the language be readable as-is, without looking like it has been marked up with tags or formatting instructions, unlike text formatted with a markup language, such as Rich Text Format (RTF) or HTML, which have obvious tags and formatting instructions.

Presentation semantics

presentation
Some markup languages, such as the widely used HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics—meaning that their specification prescribes generally how to present the structured data on particular media.
Many markup languages like HTML, CSS, DSSSL, XSL-FO or troff have presentation semantics, but others like XML, XLink and XPath do not.

Standard Generalized Markup Language

SGMLISO 8879ISO SGML
HyperText Markup Language (HTML), one of the document formats of the World Wide Web, is an application of SGML and XML.

Brian Reid (computer scientist)

Brian ReidBrian K. Reid
Brian Reid, in his 1980 dissertation at Carnegie Mellon University, developed the theory and a working implementation of descriptive markup in actual use.
He developed an early use of a markup language in his 1980 doctoral dissertation.

WYSIWYG

What you see is what you getwhat-you-see-is-what-you-getWYSIWYG editor
Availability of WYSIWYG ("what you see is what you get") publishing software supplanted much use of these languages among casual users, though serious publishing work still uses markup to specify the non-visual structure of texts, and WYSIWYG editors now usually save documents in a markup-language-based format.
These applications typically used an arbitrary markup language to define the codes/tags.

Typesetting

typesettercompositortypeset
For centuries, this task was done primarily by skilled typographers known as "markup men" or "d markers" who marked up text to indicate what typeface, style, and size should be applied to each part, and then passed the manuscript to others for typesetting by hand or machine.
Early minicomputer-based typesetting software introduced in the 1970s and early 1980s, such as Datalogics Pager, Penta, Atex, Miles 33, Xyvision, troff from Bell Labs, and IBM's Script product with CRT terminals, were better able to drive these electromechanical devices, and used text markup languages to describe type and other page formatting information.

Document type definition

DTDDTDsDocument Type Definition (DTD)
SGML specified a syntax for including the markup in documents, as well as one for separately describing what tags were allowed, and where (the Document Type Definition (DTD), later known as a schema).
A document type definition (DTD) is a set of markup declarations that define a document type for a SGML-family markup language (GML, SGML, XML, HTML).

Charles Goldfarb

However, IBM researcher Charles Goldfarb is more commonly seen today as the "father" of markup languages.
He co-invented the concept of markup languages.

IBM Generalized Markup Language

Generalized Markup LanguageGMLIBM GML
Goldfarb hit upon the basic idea while working on a primitive document management system intended for law firms in 1969, and helped invent IBM GML later that same year.
Using GML, a document is marked up with tags that define what the text is, in terms of paragraphs, headers, lists, tables, and so forth.

William W. Tunnicliffe

The first well-known public presentation of markup languages in computer text processing was made by William W. Tunnicliffe at a conference in 1967, although he preferred to call it generic coding. It can be seen as a response to the emergence of programs such as RUNOFF that each used their own control notations, often specific to the target typesetting device.
*Markup language

XHTML

Extensible HyperText Markup Language(X)HTMLXHTML 1.1
Since January 2000, all W3C Recommendations for HTML have been based on XML rather than SGML, using the abbreviation XHTML (Extensible HyperText Markup Language).
eXtensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages.

List of XML markup languages

FDMLFlow Description Markup LanguageLandXML
For a partial list of these, see List of XML markup languages.
This is a list of notable XML markup languages.

Comparison of document-markup languages

Comparison of document markup languages
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of document-markup languages.

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
Markup languages like XML, HTML, or troff, which define structured data, are not usually considered programming languages.

Curl (programming language)

Curl
Curl is a markup language like HTML—that is, plain text is shown as text; at the same time, Curl includes an object-oriented programming language that supports multiple inheritance.