A report on Marsh

Wye Marsh, Midland, Ontario
Marsh in shallow water on a lakeshore
Green Cay Wetlands, Palm Beach County, Florida
White water lilies are a typical marsh plant in European areas of deeper water.
Many kinds of birds nest in marshes; this one is a yellow-headed blackbird.
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A salt marsh in Scotland
A wet meadow adjacent to Big Bear Lake, San Bernardino Mountains, California
Vernal pools are ponded only during the wetter part of the year.
Aerial view of prairie potholes

Wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species.

- Marsh
Wye Marsh, Midland, Ontario

12 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Marshes develop along the edges of rivers and lakes.

Wetland

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Distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally (for weeks or months).

Distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally (for weeks or months).

Marshes develop along the edges of rivers and lakes.
Sunrise at Viru Bog, Estonia
Wetlands contrast the hot, arid landscape around Middle Spring, Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, Utah
Bud of Nelumbo nucifera, an aquatic plant.
Many species of frogs live in wetlands, while others visit them each year to lay eggs.
Snapping turtles are one of the many kinds of turtles found in wetlands.
Wetland at the Broadmoor Wildlife Sanctuary in Massachuesetts, United States, in February
Fog rising over the Mukri bog near Mukri, Estonia. The bog has an area of 2147 ha and has been protected since 1992.
Humid wetlands in Pennsylvania before a rain.

For example, marshes are wetlands dominated by emergent vegetation such as reeds, cattails and sedges; swamps are ones dominated by woody vegetation such as trees and shrubs (although reed swamps in Europe are dominated by reeds, not trees).

A variety of mire types in Carbajal Valley, Argentina.

Mire

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Wetland area dominated by living peat-forming plants.

Wetland area dominated by living peat-forming plants.

A variety of mire types in Carbajal Valley, Argentina.
A valley mire creates a level ground surface in otherwise dramatic topography. Upper Bigo Bog, Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda.
Satellite image of burning tropical peat swamp, Borneo. In 1997 alone, 73000 ha of swamp was burned in Borneo, releasing the same amount of carbon as 13-40% of the mean annual global carbon emissions of fossil fuels. The majority of this carbon was released from peat rather than overlying tropical rainforest.
Wooded bog in Lahemaa National Park, Estonia. 65% of mires in Estonia have been strongly affected or damaged by human activity in recent years.
Extraction of peat from derelict blanket bog, South Uist, Scotland. This old bog is no longer forming peat because the vegetation has been changed, and therefore it is not a mire.

There are four types of mire: bog, fen, marsh and swamp.

Tidal salt marsh at Ella Nore in Chichester, England.

Tidal marsh

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Tidal salt marsh at Ella Nore in Chichester, England.
Seaside sparrow (Ammospiza maritima).

A tidal marsh (also known as a type of "tidal wetland") is a marsh found along rivers, coasts and estuaries which floods and drains by the tidal movement of the adjacent estuary, sea or ocean.

Salt marsh during low tide, mean low tide, high tide and very high tide (spring tide).

Salt marsh

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Coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.

Coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.

Salt marsh during low tide, mean low tide, high tide and very high tide (spring tide).
An estuarine salt marsh along the Ōpāwaho / Heathcote River, Christchurch, New Zealand
Salt marsh on Sapelo Island, Georgia, USA
An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut.
High marsh in the Marine Park Salt Marsh Nature Center in Brooklyn, New York
Bloody Marsh in Georgia, USA
Spartina alterniflora (Saltmarsh Cordgrass). Native to the eastern seaboard of the United States. Considered a noxious weed in the Pacific Northwest
Chaetomorpha linum is a common marine algae found in the salt marsh.
Crabs, such as the tunnelling mud crab Helice crassa of New Zealand shown here, fills a special niche in salt marsh ecosystems.
Glasswort (Salicornia spp.) a species endemic to the high marsh zone.
Common reed (Phragmites australis) an invasive species in degraded marshes in the northeastern United States.
Atlantic ribbed mussel, found in the low marsh

These plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the salt marsh in trapping and binding sediments.

A freshwater swamp in Florida, United States

Swamp

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Forested wetland.

Forested wetland.

A freshwater swamp in Florida, United States
Difference between swamp and marsh
The Linnaistensuo Mire, a nature reserve swamp in Lahti, Finland.
Marsh Arabs poling a mashoof
Swamp in southern Louisiana
A small swamp in Padstow, New South Wales, Australia
Inside a mangrove canopy, Salt Pan Creek, New South Wales
A black alder swamp in Germany
Pantanal in Brazil

Swamps and marshes are specific types of wetlands that form along waterbodies containing rich, hydric soils.

An alder carr at Moor Park, Farnham, Surrey in England, UK

Carr (landform)

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An alder carr at Moor Park, Farnham, Surrey in England, UK

A carr is a type of waterlogged wooded terrain that, typically, represents a succession stage between the original reedy marsh and the likely eventual formation of forest in a sub-maritime climate.

A bog in Lauhanvuori National Park, Isojoki, Finland.

Bog

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Wetland that accumulates peat as a deposit of dead plant materials often mosses, typically sphagnum moss.

Wetland that accumulates peat as a deposit of dead plant materials often mosses, typically sphagnum moss.

A bog in Lauhanvuori National Park, Isojoki, Finland.
Precipitation accumulates in many bogs, forming bog pools, such as Koitjärve bog in Estonia.
A raised bog in Ķemeri National Park, Jūrmala, Latvia, formed approximately 10,000 years ago in the postglacial period and now a tourist attraction.
Carnivorous plants, such as this Sarracenia purpurea pitcher plant of the eastern seaboard of North America, are often found in bogs. Capturing insects provides nitrogen and phosphorus, which are usually scarce in such conditions.
An expanse of wet Sphagnum bog in Frontenac National Park, Quebec, Canada. Spruce trees can be seen on a forested ridge in the background.
Many species of evergreen shrub are found in bogs, such as Labrador tea.
Aerial image of Carbajal Valley peat bogs, Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina.
Viru Bog in Lahemaa National Park, Estonia, which is rich in raised bogs.
Sphagnum moss and sedges can produce floating bog mats along the shores of small lakes. This bog in Duck Lake, Oregon also supports a carnivorous plant, sundew.
Blanket bog in Connemara, Ireland
Ķemeri National Park Bog in Jūrmala, Latvia, with a boardwalk path visible
Sitniki peat bog in Russia recultivated after industrial use.
Sphagnum with northern pitcher plants at Brown's Lake Bog, Ohio.
Bog, Ostfriesland
Bog-wood and boulders at the Stumpy Knowe near South Auchenmade, Ayrshire, Scotland.
Bog with October morning mist in Mukri, Estonia

These develop from a lake or flat marshy area, over either non-acidic or acidic substrates.

This coral reef in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area provides habitat for numerous marine species.

Habitat

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Area, such as to support the survival and reproduction of a particular species.

Area, such as to support the survival and reproduction of a particular species.

This coral reef in the Phoenix Islands Protected Area provides habitat for numerous marine species.
Few creatures make the ice shelves of Antarctica their habitat, but water beneath the ice can provide habitat for multiple species.
Ibex in an alpine habitat
Rich rainforest habitat in Dominica
Wetland habitat types in Borneo
Desert scene in Egypt
An Antarctic rock split apart to show endolithic lifeforms showing as a green layer a few millimeters thick
Dense mass of white crabs at a hydrothermal vent, with stalked barnacles on right
Twenty five years after the devastating eruption at Mount St. Helens, United States, pioneer species have moved in.

Fresh-water habitat types include marshes, streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds; marine habitat types include salt marshes, the coast, the intertidal zone, estuaries, reefs, bays, the open sea, the sea bed, deep water and submarine vents.

Satellite observations of sea level rise from 1993 to 2021.

Sea level rise

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Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century.

Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century.

Satellite observations of sea level rise from 1993 to 2021.
Historical sea level reconstruction and projections up to 2100 published in 2017 by the U.S. Global Change Research Program for the Fourth National Climate Assessment. RCP2.6 is the scenario where emissions peak before 2020, RCP4.5 the one where they peak around 2040, and RCP8.5 the one where they keep increasing.
Different sea level rise projections for the 21st century
Map of the Earth with a long-term 6 m sea level rise represented in red (uniform distribution, actual sea level rise will vary regionally and local adaptation measures will also have an effect on local sea levels).
Earth lost 28 trillion tonnes of ice between 1994 and 2017, with melting grounded ice (ice sheets and glaciers) raising the global sea level by 34.6 ±3.1 mm. The rate of ice loss has risen by 57% since the 1990s−from 0.8 to 1.2 trillion tonnes per year.
Ocean heat content (OHC) between 1957 and 2017, NOAA
The Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica's largest, is about the size of France and up to several hundred metres thick.
grounding zone
Greenland 2007 melt, measured as the difference between the number of days on which melting occurred in 2007 compared to the average annual melting days from 1988 to 2006
Trends in land water storage from GRACE observations in gigatons per year, April 2002 to November 2014 (glaciers and ice sheets are excluded).
A stripe graphic assigns ranges of annual sea level measurements to respective colors, with the baseline white color starting in 1880 and darker blues denoting progressively greater sea level rise.
Jason-1 continued the sea surface measurements started by TOPEX/Poseidon. It was followed by the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on Jason-2, and by Jason-3
Between 1993 and 2018, the mean sea level has risen across most of the world ocean (blue colors).
Tidal flooding in Miami during a king tide (October 17, 2016). The risk of tidal flooding increases with sea level rise.
Major cities threatened by sea level rise. The cities indicated are under threat of even a small sea level rise (of 1.6 foot/49 cm) compared to the level in 2010. Even moderate projections indicate that such a rise will have occurred by 2060.
Bramble Cay melomys Melomys rubicola. In 2016 declared extinct on Bramble Cay, where it had been endemic, and likely also globally extinct, with habitat loss due to sea level rise being the root cause.
Placard "The sea is rising", at the People's Climate March (2017).
Beach nourishment in progress in Barcelona.
Changes in sea level since the end of the last glacial episode

This coastal narrowing, sometimes called 'coastal squeeze' when considering human-made barriers, could result in the loss of habitats such as mudflats and marshes.

Freshwater marsh, Naselle River, Washington

Freshwater marsh

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Freshwater marsh, Naselle River, Washington
Freshwater marsh in Kittery Point, Maine
Cattail marshland at Tifft Nature Preserve, Buffalo, New York
Creek in Pennsylvania which feeds the water in a surrounding freshwater marsh.

A freshwater marsh is a non-tidal, non-forested marsh wetland that contains fresh water, and is continuously or frequently flooded.