Marsupial mole

Notoryctesmarsupial molesitjaritjarimolesNorthern marsupial mole
Marsupial moles are highly specialized marsupial mammals, known from two species found at the Australian interior.wikipedia
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Golden mole

ChrysochloridaeAmblysominaeChrysochlorinae
Like chrysochlorids and epoicotheres, notoryctids use their forelimbs and enlarged central claws to dig in a parasagittal (i.e., up and down) plane, as opposed to the "lateral scratch" style of digging that characterizes talpid moles.
In particular, golden moles bear a remarkable resemblance to the marsupial moles of Australia, family Notoryctidae, which they resemble so suggestively that at one time, the marsupial/placental divide not withstanding, some argued that they were related.

Northern marsupial mole

N. caurinusNotoryctes caurinuskakarratul
One of two extant species of the genus Notoryctes, following recognition of its separation from Notoryctes typhlops in 1988.

Mole (animal)

molemolesMateless
Like chrysochlorids and epoicotheres, notoryctids use their forelimbs and enlarged central claws to dig in a parasagittal (i.e., up and down) plane, as opposed to the "lateral scratch" style of digging that characterizes talpid moles.
These are the golden moles of southern Africa and the marsupial moles of Australia.

Dasyuromorphia

dasyuromorphsdasyuromorphcarnivorous marsupial
The largest phylogenetic datasets strongly support the placement of Notoryctes as the sister taxon to a dasyuromorph-peramelian clade, within the Australidelphian radiation.
In Australia, the exceptions include the omnivorous bandicoots (order Peramelemorphia) and the marsupial moles (which eat meat but are very different and are now accorded an order of their own, Notoryctemorphia).

Naraboryctes

Notoryctids are represented by early Miocene fossils of Naraboryctes from site of Riversleigh in Queensland, Australia, which document the mosaic acquisition of dental and skeletal features of the living Notoryctes from a more terrestrial ancestor.
The generic name means "to drink" (naraba in Garrawa and Waanyi languages of northwestern Queensland) in reference to its rainforest palaeohabitat + "digger" (oryctes in Greek) in reference to its fossorial specializations and close relationship to the extant species of genus Notoryctes.

Southern marsupial mole

Notoryctes typhlopsN. typhlopsmarsupial moles
Because the marsupial mole closely resembled the golden moles of Africa, some scientists concluded that the two were related and that they had found the proof.

Edward Charles Stirling

E. C. StirlingEdward StirlingStirling
In 1890 he went overland with South Australia's Governor, Lord Kintore, from Port Darwin to Adelaide and collected much flora and fauna including several specimens of the marsupial mole Notoryctes typhlops, described and illustrated in his paper in the Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia, 1891, p. 154.

Fossorial

burrowingdiggingsemifossorial
Marsupial moles spend most of their time underground, coming to the surface only occasionally, probably mostly after rains.

Pangolin

Visual impairment

blindblindnessvisually impaired
They are blind, their eyes having become reduced to vestigial lenses under the skin which lack a pupil.

Vestigiality

vestigialvestigerudimentary
They are blind, their eyes having become reduced to vestigial lenses under the skin which lack a pupil.

Pouch (marsupial)

pouchmarsupiumpouched
Their pouch is small but well developed and has evolved to face backwards so it does not fill with sand.

Teat

teatsT’s
It contains just two teats, so the animal cannot bear more than two young at a time.

Epipubic bone

epipubicEpipubic bonesa fourth pair of bones
Epipubic bones are present but small and as in some other fossorial mammals (e.g., armadillos), the last five cervical vertebrae are fused to give the head greater rigidity during digging.

Armadillo

armadillosanimal of the same namearmadillos,
Epipubic bones are present but small and as in some other fossorial mammals (e.g., armadillos), the last five cervical vertebrae are fused to give the head greater rigidity during digging.

Vertebra

vertebraeneural spineneural arch
Epipubic bones are present but small and as in some other fossorial mammals (e.g., armadillos), the last five cervical vertebrae are fused to give the head greater rigidity during digging.

Mosaic evolution

mosaicmodular evolutionmosaic features
Notoryctids are represented by early Miocene fossils of Naraboryctes from site of Riversleigh in Queensland, Australia, which document the mosaic acquisition of dental and skeletal features of the living Notoryctes from a more terrestrial ancestor.

Dentition

dental formuladental morphologydental
Regarding the number of teeth in each dental quadrant (or dental formula) Archer et al. (2011) reported that "the dental formula for species of Notoryctes is controversial because of considerable polymorphism in tooth number, both between specimens and within the same specimen."

William King Gregory

GregoryWilliam K. GregoryW. K. Gregory
American paleontologist William King Gregory [http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/313 wrote in 1910 (p.

Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genome
209)] that "Notoryctes is a true marsupial" and this view has been repeatedly verified by phylogenetic analyses of comparative anatomy, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, rare genomic events, and combined datasets of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and morphology and DNA.

Australidelphia

Australian marsupialsAustralasian marsupialsAustralidelphia indet.
The largest phylogenetic datasets strongly support the placement of Notoryctes as the sister taxon to a dasyuromorph-peramelian clade, within the Australidelphian radiation.

Miocene

Late MioceneEarly MioceneMiddle Miocene