A report on Martín García Óñez de Loyola

Alonso de Ovalle's 1646 engraving of Quiñónez, Óñez de Loyola and Viscarra

Spanish Basque soldier and Royal Governor of the Captaincy General of Chile.

- Martín García Óñez de Loyola

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Battle of Curalaba

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The Battle of Curalaba (Batalla de Curalaba ) is a 1598 battle and ambush where Mapuche people led by Pelantaru soundly defeated Spanish conquerors led by Martín García Óñez de Loyola at Curalaba, southern Chile.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

Mapuche

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The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

In 1598 a party of warriors from Purén led by Pelantaro, who were returning south from a raid in Chillán area, ambushed Martín García Óñez de Loyola and his troops while they rested without taking any precautions against attack.

Santa Cruz de Óñez

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Santa Cruz de Óñez was a fort founded by Martín García Óñez de Loyola in May 1594, near the confluence of the Bio-Bio and Laja Rivers on the right bank of the upper reach of the Rele River in Catiray, ten kilometers south of the Bio-Bio.

Santa Cruz de Coya

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Santa Cruz de Coya was a city established by the governor of Chile Martín García Oñez de Loyola on the site of the fort of Santa Cruz de Oñez, in 1595.

Map of the Araucanía from the 18th century, showing a large part of the territory in which the Arauco War was fought.

Arauco War

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Long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.

Long-running conflict between colonial Spaniards and the Mapuche people, mostly fought in the Araucanía.

Map of the Araucanía from the 18th century, showing a large part of the territory in which the Arauco War was fought.
Pedro de Valdivia
Doña Inés de Suárez in defending the city of Santiago
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Picture from Alonso de Ovalle's Historia de Chile
Picture "El joven Lautaro" of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of its people.
García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete

In September 1592, Martín García Óñez de Loyola, famous for his capture of Túpac Amaru, was appointed as Captain General directly by Philip II, who thought him the most likely candidate to finish the Arauco War.

Map of the Captaincy General of Chile in 1796 and claimed territories

Captaincy General of Chile

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Territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818.

Territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818.

Map of the Captaincy General of Chile in 1796 and claimed territories
Illustration of the Arauco War in Jerónimo de Vivar's book Crónica y relación copiosa y verdadera de los reynos de Chile (1558).
Map of the Captaincy General of Chile in 1796 and claimed territories
"Baile del Santiago antiguo" by Pedro Subercaseaux. Chile's colonial high society were made up by landowners and government officials.
World Map by Abraham Ortelius (1570), where appears the Terra Australis Incognita.

Martín García Óñez de Loyola founded a last city south of the Bio Bio River, Santa Cruz de Coya, in 1595.

Tupac Amaru, the last Sapa Inca of Vilcabamba

Túpac Amaru

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The last Sapa Inca of the Neo-Inca State, the final remaining independent part of the Inca Empire.

The last Sapa Inca of the Neo-Inca State, the final remaining independent part of the Inca Empire.

Tupac Amaru, the last Sapa Inca of Vilcabamba
Tupaq Amaru, last Inca King, prisoner of the Spaniards, 1572 (drawing by Guaman Poma de Ayala)

Following this, a group of forty hand-picked soldiers under Martín García Óñez de Loyola set out to pursue them.

Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.

Ignatius of Loyola

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Spanish Catholic priest and theologian, who, with Peter Faber and Francis Xavier, founded the religious order of the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits), and became its first Superior General, in Paris in 1541.

Spanish Catholic priest and theologian, who, with Peter Faber and Francis Xavier, founded the religious order of the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits), and became its first Superior General, in Paris in 1541.

Ignatius of Loyola, anonymous 16th-c.
The Sanctuary of Loyola, in Azpeitia, built atop the birthplace of the saint.
Ignatius in his armour, in a 16th-century painting
Saint Ignatius of Loyola's Vision of Christ and God the Father at La Storta by Domenichino
Manresa, Chapel in the Cave of Saint Ignatius where Ignatius practiced asceticism and conceived his Spiritual Exercises
Original shield of Oñaz-Loyola.
Ignatius as Superior General
Statue of Saint Ignatius in the Church of the Gesù, Rome
Tomb of Saint Ignatius, c. 1675
Apotheosis of Saint Ignatius
Portrait by Pieter Paul Rubens
Visions of Ignatius, 1617–18, Peter Paul Rubens
The journeys of Ignatius of Loyola at different times
A page from Spiritual Exercises

Martín García Óñez de Loyola, soldier and Governor of Chile killed by Mapuches at the Battle of Curalaba, is likely Ignatius's nephew.

Alonso García de Ramón

Alonso García de Ramón

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Alonso García de Ramón (c.

Alonso García de Ramón (c.

Alonso García de Ramón

Soon after Martín García Óñez de Loyola replaced Sotomayor, García de Ramón moved to Peru, and earned the confidence of the Viceroy of Peru, García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5th Marquis of Cañete who entrusted him with many positions, that he carried out with brilliance including those of corregidor of Arica and Potosí.