Martianus Capella

MartianusCapellanCapellaCapella, MartianusCAPELLA, MARTIANUS MINEUS FELIXDe nuptiisDe nuptiis Philologiae et MercuriiMarcianus CapellaMarriage of Mercury and PhilologyMartial
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl. c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.wikipedia
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Liberal arts education

liberal artsliberal studiesArts
c. 410–420), one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education.
The exact classification of the liberal arts varied however in Roman times, and it was only after Martianus Capella in the 5th century AD influentially brought the seven liberal arts as bridesmaids to the Marriage of Mercury and Philology, that they took on canonical form.

Allegory

allegoricalallegoriesallegorically
His single encyclopedic work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury", also called De septem disciplinis "On the seven disciplines") is an elaborate didactic allegory written in a mixture of prose and elaborately allusive verse.
In Late Antiquity Martianus Capella organized all the information a fifth-century upper-class male needed to know into an allegory of the wedding of Mercury and Philologia, with the seven liberal arts the young man needed to know as guests.

Late antiquity

Late Antiqueancientantiquity
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl.
It also marks a shift in literary style, with a preference for encyclopedic works in a dense and allusive style, consisting of summaries of earlier works (anthologies, epitomes) often dressed up in elaborate allegorical garb (e.g., De nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae [The Marriage of Mercury and Philology] of Martianus Capella and the De arithmetica, De musica, and De consolatione philosophiae of Boethius—both later key works in medieval education).

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetorrhetorical
Among the wedding gifts are seven maids who will be Philology's servants: they are the seven liberal arts: Grammar (an old woman with a knife for excising children's grammatical errors), Dialectic, Rhetoric (a tall woman with a dress decorated with figures of speech and armed in a fashion to harm adversaries), Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy and (musical) Harmony.
Along with grammar and logic (or dialectic – see Martianus Capella), it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse.

Souk Ahras

Bishop of TagasteTagasteThagaste
According to Cassiodorus, Martianus was a native of Madaura—which had been the native city of Apuleius—in the Roman province of Africa (now Souk Ahras, Algeria).

Philology

philologistphilologicalgrammarian
Its frame story in the first two books relates the courtship and wedding of Mercury (intelligent or profitable pursuit), who has been refused by Wisdom, Divination and the Soul, with the maiden Philologia (learning, or more literally the love of letters and study), who is made immortal under the protection of the gods, the Muses, the Cardinal Virtues and the Graces.
As an allegory of literary erudition, philologia appears in fifth-century postclassical literature (Martianus Capella, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii), an idea revived in Late Medieval literature (Chaucer, Lydgate).

Capella (crater)

CapellaVallis Capella
The lunar crater Capella is named after him.
It was named after Roman astronomer Martianus Capella.

Carolingian Renaissance

CarolingianCarolingian periodCarolingian Reforms
The work was read, taught, and commented upon throughout the early Middle Ages and shaped European education during the early medieval period and the Carolingian renaissance.
The centuries following the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West did not see an abrupt disappearance of the ancient schools, from which emerged Martianus Capella, Cassiodorus and Boethius, essential icons of the Roman cultural heritage in the Middle Ages, thanks to which the disciplines of liberal arts were preserved.

Roman Empire

RomanRomansEmpire
The book was of great importance in defining the standard formula of academic learning from the Christianized Roman Empire of the fifth century until the Renaissance of the 12th century.
A continuing interest in the religious traditions of Rome prior to Christian dominion is found into the 5th century, with the Saturnalia of Macrobius and The Marriage of Philology and Mercury of Martianus Capella.

Remigius of Auxerre

Remi d'AuxerreRemigius Antissiodorensis
It was commented upon copiously: by John Scotus Erigena, Hadoard, Alexander Neckham, and Remigius of Auxerre.
Although the texts he examined were numerous and varied, his main commentaries were on the works of the late Roman philosophers Boethius and Martianus Capella, in which he found flexible allegories that he felt could co-exist with Christian theology.

Editio princeps

first printededitiones principesfirst edition
The editio princeps of De nuptiis, edited by Franciscus Vitalis Bodianus, was printed in Vicenza in 1499.

Notker Labeo

Notker IIILabeo, NotkerNotker
In the eleventh century the German monk Notker Labeo translated the first two books into Old High German.
He mentions eleven of these translations, but unfortunately only five are preserved: (1) Boethius, "De consolatione philosophiae"; (2) Martianus Capella, "De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii"; (3) Aristotle, "De categoriis"; (4) Aristotle, "De interpretatione"; (5) "The Psalter".

Hadoard

It was commented upon copiously: by John Scotus Erigena, Hadoard, Alexander Neckham, and Remigius of Auxerre.
It also contains excerpts from Macrobius and Martianus Capella, as well as an introductory poem of 112 lines that echoes classical poets.

Gregory of Tours

Historia FrancorumSt. Gregory of ToursSaint Gregory of Tours
(Michael Winterbottom suggests that Securus Memor's work may be the basis of the text found in "an impressive number of extant books" written in the ninth century.) Another sixth-century writer, Gregory of Tours, attests that it had become virtually a school manual.
Gregory's education was the standard Latin one of Late Antiquity, focusing on Virgil's Aeneid and Martianus Capella's Liber de Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, but also other key texts such as Orosius' Chronicles, which his Historia continues, and Sallust; he refers to all these works in his own.

Aristotelianism

AristotelianAristotelian philosophyAristotelians
Martianus continued to play a major role as transmitter of ancient learning until the rise of a new system of learning founded on scholastic Aristotelianism.
Although some knowledge of Aristotle seems to have lingered on in the ecclesiastical centres of western Europe after the fall of the Roman empire, by the ninth century nearly all that was known of Aristotle consisted of Boethius's commentaries on the Organon, and a few abridgments made by Latin authors of the declining empire, Isidore of Seville and Martianus Capella.

Fabius Planciades Fulgentius

FulgentiusFulgentianFulgentius the Mythographer
As early as the end of the fifth century, another African, Fulgentius, composed a work modeled on it.
However, Fulgentiuss' tendency to strip classical myth of all its manifest detail and replace it with ethical interpretations appears to have more in common with the late 5th-century writer Martianus Capella.

Alexander Neckam

Alexander NeckhamAlbric of LondonAlexander Neckman
It was commented upon copiously: by John Scotus Erigena, Hadoard, Alexander Neckham, and Remigius of Auxerre.
Neckam also wrote Corrogationes Promethei, a scriptural commentary prefaced by a treatise on grammatical criticism; a translation of Aesop into Latin elegiacs (six fables from this version, as given in a Paris manuscript, are printed in Robert's Fables inedites); commentaries, on portions of Aristotle and Ovid's Metamorphoses, which remain unprinted, and on Martianus Capella, which has recently received an edition, and on other works.

Nicolaus Copernicus

CopernicusCopernicanNicholas Copernicus
This view was singled out for praise by Copernicus in Book I of his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.

Allegory in the Middle Ages

Medieval allegoryallegoricalallegory
In this same period of the early 5th century three other authors of importance to the history of allegory emerged: Claudian, Macrobius and Martianus Capella.

Latin literature

LatinRoman literatureliterature
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a Latin prose writer of Late Antiquity (fl.

Prose

Fictional proseprosaistprosaic
His single encyclopedic work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury", also called De septem disciplinis "On the seven disciplines") is an elaborate didactic allegory written in a mixture of prose and elaborately allusive verse.

Allusion

allusionsalludesallusive
His single encyclopedic work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii ("On the Marriage of Philology and Mercury", also called De septem disciplinis "On the seven disciplines") is an elaborate didactic allegory written in a mixture of prose and elaborately allusive verse.

Neoplatonism

NeoplatonicNeoplatonistNeo-Platonic
Martianus often presents philosophical views based on Neoplatonism, the Platonic school of philosophy pioneered by Plotinus and his followers.

Platonism

PlatonicPlatonistPlatonists
Martianus often presents philosophical views based on Neoplatonism, the Platonic school of philosophy pioneered by Plotinus and his followers.

Plotinus

PlotinianPlotinPlotino
Martianus often presents philosophical views based on Neoplatonism, the Platonic school of philosophy pioneered by Plotinus and his followers.