Martin Bucer

BucerMartin ButzerButzerinvited Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.wikipedia
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Tetrapolitan Confession

Confessio Tetrapolitana Tetrapolitan
Later, Bucer sought agreement on common articles of faith such as the Tetrapolitan Confession and the Wittenberg Concord, working closely with Philipp Melanchthon on the latter.
The Tetrapolitan Confession (Confessio Tetrapolitana, Vierstädtebekenntnis), also called the Strasbourg Confession or Swabian Confession, was an early Protestant confession of faith drawn up by Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito and presented to the Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg on 9 July 1530 on behalf of the four south German cities of Konstanz, Lindau, Memmingen and Strasbourg.

Strasbourg

StrassburgStraßburgStrasbourg, France
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
Strasbourg played an important part in Protestant Reformation, with personalities such as John Calvin, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, Matthew and Katharina Zell, but also in other aspects of Christianity such as German mysticism, with Johannes Tauler, Pietism, with Philipp Spener, and Reverence for Life, with Albert Schweitzer.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
Some of the most important activists of the Protestant Reformation included Jacobus Arminius, Theodore Beza, Martin Bucer, Andreas von Carlstadt, Heinrich Bullinger, Balthasar Hubmaier, Thomas Cranmer, William Farel, Thomas Müntzer, Laurentius Petri, Olaus Petri, Philipp Melanchthon, Menno Simons, Louis de Berquin, Primož Trubar and John Smyth.

Wittenberg Concord

Later, Bucer sought agreement on common articles of faith such as the Tetrapolitan Confession and the Wittenberg Concord, working closely with Philipp Melanchthon on the latter.
The Reformed signers included Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Fabricius Capito, Matthäus Alber, Martin Frecht, Jakob Otter, and Wolfgang Musculus.

Book of Common Prayer

Prayer BookThe Book of Common Prayer1662 Book of Common Prayer
In 1549, Bucer was exiled to England, where, under the guidance of Thomas Cranmer, he was able to influence the second revision of the Book of Common Prayer.
Many phrases are characteristic of the German reformer Martin Bucer, the Italian Peter Martyr (who was staying with Cranmer at the time he was finalising drafts) or of his chaplain, Thomas Becon.

Alsace

AlsatianAlsatiansElsass
Martin Bucer was born in Sélestat (Schlettstadt), Alsace, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.
Martin Bucer was a prominent Protestant reformer in the region.

Thomas Cranmer

Archbishop CranmerCranmerCranmer Square
In 1549, Bucer was exiled to England, where, under the guidance of Thomas Cranmer, he was able to influence the second revision of the Book of Common Prayer.
He struck up a friendship with Cranmer and after his return to Basel, he wrote about Cranmer to the German reformer Martin Bucer in Strasbourg.

Philip Melanchthon

Philipp MelanchthonMelanchthonMelancthon
Later, Bucer sought agreement on common articles of faith such as the Tetrapolitan Confession and the Wittenberg Concord, working closely with Philipp Melanchthon on the latter.
He approved fully of the Wittenberg Concord sent by Bucer to Wittenberg, and at the instigation of the Landgrave of Hesse discussed the question with Bucer in Kassel, at the end of 1534.

Sélestat

SchlettstadtSelestatSchlestadt
Martin Bucer was born in Sélestat (Schlettstadt), Alsace, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.
Reformers Beatus Rhenanus and Martin Bucer were among the school's alumni.

Caspar Hedio

There he joined a team of reformers which included Matthew Zell, Wolfgang Capito, and Caspar Hedio.
In Strasbourg, he collaborated with Wolfgang Capito and Martin Bucer and participated in the Marburg Colloquy.

Martin Luther

LutherLutheranLuther, Martin
Bucer was originally a member of the Dominican Order, but after meeting and being influenced by Martin Luther in 1518 he arranged for his monastic vows to be annulled. In April 1518, Johannes von Staupitz, the vicar-general of the Augustinians, invited the Wittenberg reformer Martin Luther to argue his theology at the Heidelberg Disputation.
The theologians, including Zwingli, Melanchthon, Martin Bucer, and Johannes Oecolampadius, differed on the significance of the words spoken by Jesus at the Last Supper: "This is my body which is for you" and "This cup is the new covenant in my blood" (1 Corinthians 11:23–26).

Wissembourg

WeissenburgWeißenburgAbbey of Wissembourg
Bucer's efforts to reform the church in Wissembourg resulted in his excommunication from the Roman Catholic Church, and he was forced to flee to Strasbourg.

Wolfgang Capito

Wolfgang Fabricius CapitoCapitoWolfangus Faber Capito
There he joined a team of reformers which included Matthew Zell, Wolfgang Capito, and Caspar Hedio.
He took a prominent part in the earlier ecclesiastical transactions of the 16th century, was present at the second conference of Zürich and at the conference of Marburg, and along with Martin Bucer drew up the Confessio Tetrapolitana.

Huldrych Zwingli

ZwingliUlrich ZwingliZwinglian
He acted as a mediator between the two leading reformers, Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli, who differed on the doctrine of the eucharist.
Four hundred and fifty persons participated, including pastors from Bern and other cantons as well as theologians from outside the Confederation such as Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito from Strasbourg, Ambrosius Blarer from Constance, and Andreas Althamer from Nuremberg.

Heidelberg Disputation

disputation at Heidelbergdisputation at Heidelberg in April 1518
In April 1518, Johannes von Staupitz, the vicar-general of the Augustinians, invited the Wittenberg reformer Martin Luther to argue his theology at the Heidelberg Disputation.
Martin Bucer, the reformer of Strasbourg, heard Luther here and became an avid follower.

Saint Aurelia's Church, Strasbourg

church of Sainte Aurélie in Strasbourgchurch of Ste AurélieSaint Aurelia’s Church
The largest guild in Strasbourg, the Gärtner or Gardeners, appointed him as the pastor of St Aurelia's Church on 24 August 1523.
In 1524, at the beginning of the Reformation, Martin Bucer was appointed as extra pastor of the church by the guild of gardeners, the largest guild in Strasbourg.

Strasbourg Cathedral

StrasbourgNotre-Dame de StrasbourgCathedral
) By May 1525, liturgical reforms had been implemented in Strasbourg's parish churches, but the city council decided to allow masses to continue in the cathedral and in the collegiate churches St. Thomas, Young St Peter, and Old St Peter.
The outgoing 15th century was marked by the sermons of Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg and by the emerging Protestant Reformation, represented in Strasbourg by figures such as John Calvin, Martin Bucer and Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck.

John Calvin

CalvinJean CalvinCalvinist
In summer 1538, he invited John Calvin, the future reformer of Geneva, to lead a French refugee congregation in Strasbourg.
At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees.

Augsburg Interim

InterimAugsburger Interim
In 1548, Bucer was persuaded, under duress, to sign the Augsburg Interim, which imposed certain forms of Catholic worship.
As a result of the Interim, many Protestant leaders, such as Martin Bucer, fled to England, where they would influence the English Reformation.

Knights' Revolt

Knight's RevoltKnights' WarPoor Barons' Rebellion
His leading benefactor, Franz von Sickingen, was defeated and killed during the Knights' Revolt, and Ulrich von Hutten became a fugitive.
Sickingen helped Johann Reuchlin escape from the Dominicans of Cologne, and sheltered other reformers such as Martin Bucer and Johannes Oecolampadius.

Old Saint Peter's Church, Strasbourg

Old Saint Peter's ChurchSaint-Pierre-le-VieuxChurch of Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux
) By May 1525, liturgical reforms had been implemented in Strasbourg's parish churches, but the city council decided to allow masses to continue in the cathedral and in the collegiate churches St. Thomas, Young St Peter, and Old St Peter.
Martin Bucer and the other Strasbourg reformers had campaigned for several years to have Protestant services in all of Strasbourg's churches, but in 1525 the city council had voted to retain the mass in several churches, including Old St Peter's.

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse

Philip IPhilip of HessePhilip the Magnanimous
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse—whose lands lay midway between Saxony and the Rhine—also supported the Reformation, and he figured prominently in the lives of both Luther and Bucer.
Although the attitude of the Wittenberg theologians frustrated his attempts to bring about harmonious relations, and although the situation was further complicated by the position of Georg, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, who demanded a uniform confession and a uniform church order, Philip held that the differences between the followers of Martin Bucer and the followers of Luther in their sacramental theories admitted honest disagreement, and that Holy Scripture could not resolve the differences definitively.

Helvetic Confessions

Second Helvetic ConfessionHelvetic ConfessionFirst Helvetic Confession
The result was the First Helvetic Confession, the success of which raised Bucer's hopes for the upcoming meeting with Luther.
The First Helvetic Confession (Confessio Helvetica prior), known also as the Second Confession of Basel, was drawn up in Basel in 1536 by Heinrich Bullinger and Leo Jud of Zürich, of Bern, Oswald Myconius and Simon Grynaeus of Basel, Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito of Strasbourg, with other representatives from Schaffhausen, St Gall, Mühlhausen and Biel.

St Thomas' Church, Strasbourg

St. ThomasSt. Thomas, StrasbourgÉglise Saint-Thomas
) By May 1525, liturgical reforms had been implemented in Strasbourg's parish churches, but the city council decided to allow masses to continue in the cathedral and in the collegiate churches St. Thomas, Young St Peter, and Old St Peter.
In 1524, the church, which had been a pillar of local Catholic faith thanks notably to the efforts of the canon and poet Gottfried von Hagenau, converted to the Protestant faith (Martin Bucer served there as a Pastor ), a status which it maintained despite annexation of Alsace to the Catholic France.

Heinrich Bullinger

BullingerHenry Bullinger
Bucer persuaded the south Germans to attend, but the Swiss, led by Zwingli's successor Heinrich Bullinger, were skeptical of his intentions.
While there, he impressed the Zürich authorities and they sent him with their delegation to the Bern Disputation - there he met Bucer, Blaurer, and Haller for the first time.