Martinsburg, West Virginia

The Baltimore and Ohio's Martinsburg Shops three years before the Civil War
An engineer waves from a passing B&O freight train in 1969. The B&O's shops employed many locals throughout its 130 years of operation.
Postcard view of veterans medical center
I-81 northbound in Martinsburg
B&O Roundhouse and Station Complex

City in and the seat of Berkeley County, West Virginia, in the tip of the state's Eastern Panhandle region in the lower Shenandoah Valley.

- Martinsburg, West Virginia

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Adam Stephen

Adam Stephen (c.

1718 – 16 July 1791) was a Scottish-born American doctor and military officer who helped found what became Martinsburg, West Virginia.

Great Railroad Strike of 1877

Blockade of engines at Martinsburg, West Virginia, 16 July 1877
Maryland National Guard's Sixth Regiment fighting its way west along main downtown commercial thoroughfare Baltimore Street through Baltimore, Maryland, 20 July 1877
Burning of Pennsylvania Railroad and Union Depot, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 21–22 July 1877, engraving from Harper's Weekly
Burning of Union Depot, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 21–22 July 1877, engraving from Harper's Weekly

The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, sometimes referred to as the Great Upheaval, began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, after the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) cut wages for the third time in a year.

Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia

Eastern of the two panhandles in the U.S. state of West Virginia; the other is the Northern Panhandle.

Berkeley also includes the Panhandle's largest city, Martinsburg, with a 2010 census population of 17,227.

Berkeley County, West Virginia

Located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States.

Water tower in Berkeley County, WV
I-81 in Berkeley County

The county is part of the Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron

Scottish peer.

Coat of arms of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, which was adapted into the official Seal of the County of Fairfax, Virginia.Seal of Fairfax County, Virginia.jpg
The tomb of Lord Fairfax at Christ Episcopal Church in Winchester, Virginia

That year he also set aside land for his personal use at Swan Pond Manor (located near present-day Martinsburg, Berkeley County, West Virginia).

Hagerstown metropolitan area

Downtown Hagerstown
Martinsburg
Hagerstown Regional Airport

The Hagerstown–Martinsburg Metropolitan Area, officially designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) as Hagerstown–Martinsburg, Maryland–West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), constitutes the primary cities of Hagerstown, Maryland, Martinsburg, West Virginia, and surrounding areas in three counties: Washington County, Maryland, Berkeley County, West Virginia, and Morgan County, West Virginia.

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

The first common carrier railroad and the oldest railroad in the United States, with its first section opening in 1830.

B&O's Columbian crossing the Potomac River at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, 1949
Cornerstone of the B&O, laid July 4, 1828, by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, now displayed at the B&O Railroad Museum
Carrollton Viaduct
Share of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail-Road Company, issued 26. July 1856; signed by Johns Hopkins as president pro. tem.
Advertisement for the Baltimore and Ohio in an 1864 Baltimore city directory, promoting its repairs and reopening at one point during the war.
Table of Cumberland Coal shipped over B&O Railroad and C&O Canal, 1842–1865
Blockade of engines at Martinsburg, West Virginia, during strike in 1877
1876 B&O map
B&O route map of 1891
B&O headquarters building on North Charles Street in Baltimore
B&O stock certificate, 1903
Replacement of retaining wall of B&O in Hazelwood, Pittsburgh, 1906
B&O roundhouse complex, Martinsburg, West Virginia.
The Ellicott City Station near Baltimore, the oldest passenger station in the U.S., is now a museum devoted the B&O's role in the Civil War.
Scenes of the B&O Railroad. Decorative title page for Ele Bowen, Rambles in the Path of the Steam-Horse, 1855

The connection at Harpers Ferry with the Winchester and Potomac Railroad, running southwest to Winchester, Virginia, opened in 1837, then the line northwest to Martinsburg in May 1842; Hancock in June 1842; and Cumberland, Maryland, on November 5, 1842, for some years the end of the line.

Shenandoah Valley

Geographic valley and cultural region of western Virginia and the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia in the United States.

Map of the Shenandoah Valley
The Shenandoah Valley in autumn
A poultry farm with the Blue Ridge Mountains in background
A farm in the fertile Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah Valley, oil on canvas, William Louis Sonntag Sr., 1859–1860. Virginia Historical Society

Known native settlements within the Valley were few, but included the Shawnee occupying the region around Winchester, and Tuscarora around what is now Martinsburg, West Virginia.

Morgantown, West Virginia

County seat of Monongalia County, West Virginia, United States, situated along the Monongahela River.

Lunch time for two boys employed at the Economy Glass Works in Morgantown, 1908. Photo by Lewis Hine.
Historic warehouse in Wharf District, converted to restaurant during late-1990s/early-2000s riverfront refurbishing
Aerial view of downtown Morgantown.
Downtown Morgantown from Fife Avenue
St. Francis High School building, 2006
Woodburn Circle at West Virginia University
Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)
WVU Student Section at Mountaineer Field

Of the 10 largest cities in West Virginia, only Morgantown and Martinsburg have shown positive population growth since the 2010 census, with Morgantown growing from 29,660 to a 2012 estimate of 31,000.

Belle Boyd

Confederate spy in the American Civil War.

Belle Boyd, Confederate spy, circa 1865
Belle Boyd's grave

Isabella Maria Boyd was born on May 9, 1844, in Martinsburg, Virginia (now part of West Virginia).