Marxism

MarxistMarxistsMarxist ideologyMarxist theoryMarxianMarxist analysisAnarchism and MarxismMarxist socialismMarxist thoughtInternational Socialist
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.wikipedia
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Friedrich Engels

EngelsFrederick EngelsFrederich Engels
It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Friedrich Engels ( ; sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, communist, social scientist, journalist and businessman.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marx's critical theories about society, economics and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle.

Class conflict

class struggleclass warfareclass war
Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and especially of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic, social, and political change.
In political science, socialists and Marxists use the term class conflict to define a social class by its relationship to the means of production, such as factories, agricultural land, and industrial machinery.

Class consciousness

class-consciousclass conscioussocialist consciousness
This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness.
In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests.

Communist society

stateless communismcommunismpure communism
As the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would ultimately be transformed into a communist society: a classless, stateless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".
In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of communism.

Marxist schools of thought

MarxistList of Marxist schoolsMarxist thought
However, lately there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that frames capitalism through a paradigm of exploitation, analyzes class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

Classical Marxism

classical MarxistclassicalClassical Marxists
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects.
Classical Marxism refers to the economic, philosophical and sociological theories expounded by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as contrasted with later developments in Marxism, especially Leninism and Marxism–Leninism.

Marxist archaeology

archaeologyMarxistMarxist archaeologist
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
Marxist archaeology is an archaeological theory that interprets archaeological information within the framework of Marxism.

Marxist sociology

Marxian-influenced sociologistsMarxist sociologistsociologist
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
Marxist sociology is the study of sociology from a Marxist perspective.

Cultural studies

cultural theoryculturalcultural theorist
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
Cultural studies combines a variety of politically engaged critical approaches drawn including semiotics, Marxism, feminist theory, ethnography, critical race theory, post-structuralism, postcolonialism, social theory, political theory, history, philosophy, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, communication studies, political economy, translation studies, museum studies and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in various societies and historical periods.

Marxist historiography

Marxist historianMarxistMarxist historians
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is a school of historiography influenced by Marxism.

Marxian economics

MarxianMarxian economistMarxist economics
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
Because one does not necessarily have to be politically Marxist to be economically Marxian, the two adjectives coexist in usage rather than being synonymous.

Karl Kautsky

KautskyK. KautskyKarl Johann Kautsky
The term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx.
Karl Johann Kautsky (16 October 1854 – 17 October 1938) was a Czech-Austrian philosopher, journalist, and Marxist theoretician.

Marxist philosophy

Marxist theoryMarxist philosopherMarxist
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.

Paul Lafargue

LafargueThe Right to be Lazy
In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist", then "one thing is certain and that is that I am not a Marxist".
Paul Lafargue (15 January 1842 – 25 November 1911) was a French revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist, literary critic, political writer and activist; he was Karl Marx's son-in-law having married his second daughter, Laura.

Social class

classsocial classesclasses
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The major perspectives historically have been Marxism and structural functionalism.

Mode of production

modes of productionproductionarticulation
It assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems, aesthetics, and ideologies.

Base and superstructure

superstructurebasesuperstructures
The economic system and these social relations form a base and superstructure.
In Marxist theory, capitalist society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.

Socialist mode of production

socialismsocialistsocialist society
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution.
In Marxist theory, the socialist mode of production (also referred to as lower-stage of communism or simply socialism, as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels used the terms socialism and communism interchangeably) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that emerge from capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.

Productive forces

forces of productionforcesproductive force
This class struggle that is commonly expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness.
Productive forces, productive powers, or forces of production (German: Produktivkräfte) is a central idea in Marxism and historical materialism.

Eduard Bernstein

Edward BernsteinBernsteinBernsteinism
Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein also later adopted use of the term.
A member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), Bernstein had held close association to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, but he saw flaws in Marxist thinking and began to criticize views held by Marxism when he investigated and challenged the Marxist materialist theory of history.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninVladimir Ilyich Lenin
According to the Marxist theoretician and revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, "the principal content of Marxism" was "Marx's economic doctrine".
Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism; his ideas were posthumously codified as Marxism–Leninism.

Marxist aesthetics

aestheticaesthetics
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
It involves a dialectical and materialist, or dialectical materialist, approach to the application of Marxism to the cultural sphere, specifically areas related to taste such as art, beauty, and so forth.

Marxist geography

Marxistgeographic spacegeography
Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, anthropology, media studies, science studies, political science, theater, history, sociology, art history and theory, cultural studies, education, economics, ethics, criminology, geography, literary criticism, aesthetics, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy.
Marxist geography is a strand of critical geography that uses the theories and philosophy of Marxism to examine the spatial relations of human geography.

Social ownership

socializationSocialization (economics)socially owned
In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use.
Reduction of necessary work time is central to the Marxist concept of human freedom and overcoming alienation, a concept widely shared by Marxist and non-Marxist socialists alike.