Marxism–Leninism

Marxism-LeninismMarxist-LeninistMarxist–LeninistMarxist-LeninismMarxist-LeninistsMarxism LeninismMarxistMarxist–Leninist ideologycommunismMarxist Leninist
Marxism–Leninism is a political ideology developed by Joseph Stalin in the late 1920s.wikipedia
2,224 Related Articles

Two-stage theory

two stage theorysocialism from abovestagist
The purpose of Marxism–Leninism is the revolutionary transformation of a capitalist state into a socialist state by way of two-stage revolution led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries, drawn from the proletariat. In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992).
The two-stage theory, or stagism, is a Marxist–Leninist political theory which argues that underdeveloped countries such as Tsarist Russia must first pass through a stage of capitalism before moving to a socialist stage.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
Based on Stalin's understanding and synthesis of both Marxism and Leninism, it was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union and the parties of the Communist International after Bolshevisation.
Stalin formalized the Communist Party's ideology of Marxism–Leninism and replaced the market economy with a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization.

List of communist parties

communist partiesList of Left communist organisations by countryList of Left communist organizations by country
Today, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of contemporary communist parties.

Left communism

Left CommunistLeft Communistscommunist left
The Italian left communist Amadeo Bordiga dismissed Marxism–Leninism as political opportunism that preserved capitalism, because of the claim that the exchange of commodities would occur under socialism; and that the use of popular front organisations by the Communist International and a political vanguard organised by organic centralism were politically more effective than a vanguard organised by democratic centralism.
Left communism, or the communist left, is a position held by the left wing of communism, which criticises the political ideas and practices espoused by Marxist–Leninists and social democrats.

Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Soviet communismSoviet ideologySoviet Marxism
Based on Stalin's understanding and synthesis of both Marxism and Leninism, it was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union and the parties of the Communist International after Bolshevisation.
The ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was Marxism–Leninism, an ideology of a centralised command economy with a vanguardist one-party state to realise the dictatorship of the proletariat.

Leninism

Leninistcadrescadre
Based on Stalin's understanding and synthesis of both Marxism and Leninism, it was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union and the parties of the Communist International after Bolshevisation. In that vein, the History of the People's Republic of China represents Mao Zedong Thought (urban Marxism–Leninism adapted to pre-industrial China) as Mao Zedong's fundamental up-dating and adaptation of Leninism to Chinese conditions, in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideologic orthodoxy is secondary; which made the Thought of Mao Zedong the official state ideology of the PRC.
In the 1925–1929 period, Joseph Stalin established his interpretation of Leninism as the official and only legitimate form of Marxism in Russia by amalgamating the political philosophies as Marxism–Leninism, which then became the state ideology of the Soviet Union.

Maoism

MaoistMaoistsMao Zedong Thought
In that vein, the History of the People's Republic of China represents Mao Zedong Thought (urban Marxism–Leninism adapted to pre-industrial China) as Mao Zedong's fundamental up-dating and adaptation of Leninism to Chinese conditions, in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideologic orthodoxy is secondary; which made the Thought of Mao Zedong the official state ideology of the PRC.
Maoism, or Mao Zedong Thought, is the Chinese communist variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the People's Republic of China.

Sino-Soviet split

Sino–Soviet splitSino-Soviet tensionsSoviet rival
Consequent to the Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966), in each socialist country, the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), each political party claimed to be the sole heir-and-successor to Stalin concerning the correct interpretation of Marxism–Leninism, and thus ideological leader of world communism.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences that arose from their different interpretations and practical applications of Marxism–Leninism, as influenced by their respective geopolitics during the Cold War (1945–1991).

One-party state

one-partyone-one-party system
Several orthodox Marxists were critical of Stalin's political economy and single-party government in the Soviet Union.

History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks)

The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) ''Short course'' history of the CPSU(b)A Short Course in the History of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
In the late 1930s, Stalin's official textbook The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) (1938), made the term Marxism–Leninism common political-science usage among communists and non-communists.
Colloquially known as the Short Course, it was the most widely disseminated book during the time Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the AUCP (B) and one of the most important ones elucidating Marxism–Leninism.

Anti-revisionism

anti-revisionistanti-revisionistsAnti-Revisionist Marxism-Leninism
The Sino-Albanian split (1972–1978) was caused by Socialist Albania's rejection of the PRC's Realpolitik of Sino–American rapprochement, specifically the Mao–Nixon meeting (1972), which the anti-revisionist Albanian Labor Party perceived as an ideological betrayal of Mao's own Three Worlds Theory, which excluded such political rapprochement with the West.
Anti-revisionism is a position within Marxism–Leninism which emerged in the 1950s in opposition to the reforms of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.

Hoxhaism

HoxhaistAlbaniaHoxhaists
In response to Mao's apparently unorthodox deviations, Enver Hoxha, head of the Albanian Labor Party, theorised an anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that was referred to as Hoxhaism, which retained 'authentic' socialism, when compared to the ideology of the post–Stalin Soviet Union.
Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.

Marxism–Leninism–Maoism

Marxism-Leninism-MaoismMarxist-Leninist-MaoistMarxist–Leninist–Maoist
In the late 1970s, the Peruvian communist party Shining Path developed and synthesized Maoism into Marxism–Leninism–Maoism, a contemporary variety of Marxism–Leninism that is a supposed higher level of Marxism-Leninism that can be applied universally.
Marxism–Leninism–Maoism (M–L–M or MLM) is a political philosophy that builds upon Marxism–Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought which was first formalised in 1988 by the Communist Party of Peru.

Dictatorship of the proletariat

proletarian dictatorshipdictatorship of proletariatleading role of The Party
To realise the two-stage transformation of the state, the vanguard party establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat and determines policy through democratic centralism. In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992).

Sino-Albanian split

brokesplittermination of relations with the People's Republic of China
The Sino-Albanian split (1972–1978) was caused by Socialist Albania's rejection of the PRC's Realpolitik of Sino–American rapprochement, specifically the Mao–Nixon meeting (1972), which the anti-revisionist Albanian Labor Party perceived as an ideological betrayal of Mao's own Three Worlds Theory, which excluded such political rapprochement with the West.
Both countries had supported each other in the Soviet–Albanian and Sino-Soviet splits, together declaring the necessity of defending Marxism–Leninism against what they regarded as Soviet revisionism within the international communist movement.

Socialist state

socialist republicsocialistsocialist countries
In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992). Extrapolating from five philosophical bases of Marxism — (i) that human history is the history of class struggle, between a ruling class and an exploited class; (ii) that capitalism creates antagonistic social classes: the bourgeois exploiters and the exploited proletariat; (iii) that capitalism employs nationalist war to further private economic expansion; (iv) that socialism is an economic system that voids social classes through public ownership of the means of production, and so will eliminate the economic causes of war; and (v) that once the state (socialist or communist) withers away, so shall international relations wither away, because they are projections of national economic forces — Lenin said that the capitalists' exhaustion of domestic sources of investment profit, by way of price-fixing trusts and cartels, then prompts the same capitalists to export investment capital to undeveloped countries to finance the exploitation of natural resources and the native populations, and to create new markets.
The term "communist state" is often used interchangeably in the West specifically when referring to single-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist, or Titoist in case of Yugoslavia political parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992). Extrapolating from five philosophical bases of Marxism — (i) that human history is the history of class struggle, between a ruling class and an exploited class; (ii) that capitalism creates antagonistic social classes: the bourgeois exploiters and the exploited proletariat; (iii) that capitalism employs nationalist war to further private economic expansion; (iv) that socialism is an economic system that voids social classes through public ownership of the means of production, and so will eliminate the economic causes of war; and (v) that once the state (socialist or communist) withers away, so shall international relations wither away, because they are projections of national economic forces — Lenin said that the capitalists' exhaustion of domestic sources of investment profit, by way of price-fixing trusts and cartels, then prompts the same capitalists to export investment capital to undeveloped countries to finance the exploitation of natural resources and the native populations, and to create new markets.
A distinction between "communist" and "socialist" as descriptors of political ideologies arose in 1918 after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically mean socialists who supported the politics and theories of Leninism, Bolshevism and later Marxism–Leninism, although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism.

Enver Hoxha

HoxhaEnver HohxaEnver Halil Hoxha
In response to Mao's apparently unorthodox deviations, Enver Hoxha, head of the Albanian Labor Party, theorised an anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that was referred to as Hoxhaism, which retained 'authentic' socialism, when compared to the ideology of the post–Stalin Soviet Union.
Hoxha's government was characterized by his proclaimed firm adherence to anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism from the mid-1970s onwards.

Cuba

Republic of CubaCubanCUB
In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992).
Cuba is one of a few extant Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution.

Shining Path

Sendero LuminosoCommunist Party of PeruCommunist Party of Peru (Shining Path)
In the late 1970s, the Peruvian communist party Shining Path developed and synthesized Maoism into Marxism–Leninism–Maoism, a contemporary variety of Marxism–Leninism that is a supposed higher level of Marxism-Leninism that can be applied universally.
The name is derived from a maxim of José Carlos Mariátegui, the founder of the original Peruvian Communist Party in the 1920s: "El Marxismo-Leninismo abrirá el sendero luminoso hacia la revolución" ("Marxism–Leninism will open the shining path to revolution").

Communist society

stateless communismcommunismpure communism
In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992). The Marxist–Leninist communist party is the vanguard for the political, economic and social transformation of a capitalist society into a socialist society which is the lower stage of socio-economic development and progress towards the upper-stage communist society which is stateless and classless, yet it features public ownership of the means of production, accelerated industrialisation, pro-active development of society's productive forces (research and development) and nationalised natural resources.
The term communist society should be distinguished from the Western concept of the communist state, the latter referring to a truly socialist state ruled by a party which professes a variation of Marxism–Leninism.

Marxist–Leninist atheism

Marxist-Leninist atheismatheismscientific atheism
The tenets of the Soviet Union's national policy of Marxist–Leninist atheism originated from the philosophies of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) and Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872), and of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Lenin (1870–1924).
In the philosophy of Marxism, Marxist–Leninist atheism (also Marxist–Leninist scientific atheism) is the irreligious and anti-clerical element of Marxism–Leninism, the official state ideology of the Soviet Union.

Vladimir Lenin

LeninV. I. LeninVladimir Ilyich Lenin
The tenets of the Soviet Union's national policy of Marxist–Leninist atheism originated from the philosophies of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) and Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872), and of Karl Marx (1818–1883) and Lenin (1870–1924).
Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism known as Leninism; his ideas were posthumously codified as Marxism–Leninism.

Communist state

Communist regimecommunist countriescommunist
Extrapolating from five philosophical bases of Marxism — (i) that human history is the history of class struggle, between a ruling class and an exploited class; (ii) that capitalism creates antagonistic social classes: the bourgeois exploiters and the exploited proletariat; (iii) that capitalism employs nationalist war to further private economic expansion; (iv) that socialism is an economic system that voids social classes through public ownership of the means of production, and so will eliminate the economic causes of war; and (v) that once the state (socialist or communist) withers away, so shall international relations wither away, because they are projections of national economic forces — Lenin said that the capitalists' exhaustion of domestic sources of investment profit, by way of price-fixing trusts and cartels, then prompts the same capitalists to export investment capital to undeveloped countries to finance the exploitation of natural resources and the native populations, and to create new markets.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as Marxist–Leninist state or workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy.

Communist party

communist partiesmass organizationcommunist
In the one-party Marxist–Leninist state, the Communist Party is the political vanguard who guides the working class and the proletariat in establishing the foundations (social, economic, cultural) of a socialist society, which is realised with two-stage revolutionary development: (i) from a capitalist state to a socialist state, and (ii) from a socialist society to a communist society, which has no social stratification and no institutional sexism, where men and women work and consume according to their abilities and needs.The socialist society is instituted and governed through the dictatorship of the proletariat to define and decide, implement and realise policy through democratic centralism; and government offices are peopled by election at the local, regional, and national levels, usually direct election; however, indirect election also features in the Marxist–Leninist practices of the People's Republic of China, the Republic of Cuba, and Socialist Yugoslavia (1943–1992). The Marxist–Leninist communist party is the vanguard for the political, economic and social transformation of a capitalist society into a socialist society which is the lower stage of socio-economic development and progress towards the upper-stage communist society which is stateless and classless, yet it features public ownership of the means of production, accelerated industrialisation, pro-active development of society's productive forces (research and development) and nationalised natural resources.
In the CPSU, the interpretations of Orthodox Marxism to Russia produced Leninist and Marxist–Leninist political parties.