Maryland in the American Civil War

MarylandBaltimoreMaryland in the Civil WarUnion state of Marylanda significant role in the conflictdid not followimprisonment of many Maryland political leaderslocal MarylandMarylanders had Southern sympathiesN/A
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North.wikipedia
200 Related Articles

Maryland

MDState of MarylandMaryland, USA
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North.
Although then a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the American Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict.

Border states (American Civil War)

border statesborder stateborder slave states
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North.
Two slave states never declared a secession or adopted an ordinance: Delaware and Maryland.

Confederate States of America

ConfederateConfederacyConfederate States
Despite some popular support for the cause of the Confederate States of America, Maryland would not secede during the Civil War. Preceded by the pivotal skirmishes at three mountain passes of Crampton, Fox and Turner's Gaps to the east in the Battle of South Mountain, Antietam (also known in the South as the Battle of Sharpsburg), though tactically a draw, was strategically enough of a Union victory in the second year of the war to give 16th President Abraham Lincoln the opportunity to issue in September 1862, the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect January 1st, 1863, which declared slaves in the rebelling states of the Confederacy (but not those in the areas already occupied by the Union Army or in border slave states like Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri) to be "henceforth and forever free".
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law; Delaware, though of divided loyalty, did not attempt it.

Abraham Lincoln

LincolnPresident LincolnPresident Abraham Lincoln
Newly elected 16th President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865, served 1861-1865), suspended the constitutional right of habeas corpus in Maryland; and he dismissed the U.S. Supreme Court's "Ex parte Merryman" decision concerning freeing John Merryman, a prominent Southern sympathizer from Baltimore County arrested by the military and held in Fort McHenry (then nicknamed "Baltimore Bastille"). Preceded by the pivotal skirmishes at three mountain passes of Crampton, Fox and Turner's Gaps to the east in the Battle of South Mountain, Antietam (also known in the South as the Battle of Sharpsburg), though tactically a draw, was strategically enough of a Union victory in the second year of the war to give 16th President Abraham Lincoln the opportunity to issue in September 1862, the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect January 1st, 1863, which declared slaves in the rebelling states of the Confederacy (but not those in the areas already occupied by the Union Army or in border slave states like Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri) to be "henceforth and forever free".
The Army responded by arresting local Maryland officials.

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad

Baltimore & Ohio RailroadB&O RailroadBaltimore and Ohio
Monocacy was a tactical victory for the Confederate States Army but a strategic defeat, as the one-day delay inflicted on the attacking Confederates under Gen. Jubal Early by Federal General Lew Wallace's units hastily sent west on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad with reinforcements from Baltimore with their stout resistance cost rebel General Early his chance to capture the Union capital of Washington, D.C. during the subsequent attack on the outlying northwestern fortifications near Fort Stevens, witnessed by President Lincoln himself in the only time that a Chief Executive came under hostile fire.
Although many Marylanders had Southern sympathies, Garrett and Hopkins supported the Union.

John Wilkes Booth

BoothJohn Wilkesfamous tragedian
Animosity against Lincoln would remain, and Marylander John Wilkes Booth would assassinate President Lincoln on April 14, 1865, crying "sic semper tyrannis" the Virginia state motto as he did so in Washington's Ford's Theater, then fleeing and hiding in southern Maryland for a week hunted by Federal troops before slipping across the Potomac and later shot in a Virginia barn.
Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus and imposed martial law in Baltimore and other portions of the state, ordering the imprisonment of many Maryland political leaders at Ft. McHenry and the stationing of Federal troops in Baltimore.

Ex parte Merryman

court orderEx parte Merryman" decisionintervention
Newly elected 16th President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865, served 1861-1865), suspended the constitutional right of habeas corpus in Maryland; and he dismissed the U.S. Supreme Court's "Ex parte Merryman" decision concerning freeing John Merryman, a prominent Southern sympathizer from Baltimore County arrested by the military and held in Fort McHenry (then nicknamed "Baltimore Bastille").

George H. Steuart (brigadier general)

George H. SteuartGeorge H. "Maryland" SteuartSteuart
The most prominent Maryland leaders and officers during the Civil War included Governor Thomas H. Hicks who, despite his early sympathies for the South, helped prevent the state from seceding, and Confederate Brigadier General George H. Steuart, who was a noted brigade commander under Robert E. Lee in the Army of Northern Virginia. Maryland Exiles, including Arnold Elzey and brigadier general George H. Steuart, would organize a "Maryland Line" in the Army of Northern Virginia which eventually consisted of one infantry regiment, one infantry battalion, two cavalry battalions and four battalions of artillery.
Nicknamed "Maryland" to avoid verbal confusion with Virginia cavalryman J.E.B. Stuart, Steuart unsuccessfully promoted the secession of Maryland before and during the conflict.

Union (American Civil War)

UnionUnionistNorth
While Major General George B. McClellan's 87,000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, a Union soldier discovered a mislaid copy of the detailed battle plans of Lee's army, on Sunday 14 September.
The Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, and Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them, especially Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D.C..

Baltimore riot of 1861

Pratt Street RiotBaltimore RiotPratt Street Riots
The first fatalities of the war happened during the Baltimore Civil War Riots of Thursday/Friday, April 18 - 19th, 1861, and a year and a half later with the single bloodiest day of combat in American military history occurred during the first major Confederate invasion of the North in the Maryland Campaign, just north above the Potomac River, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, (Washington County) at the Battle of Antietam, on 17 September 1862.

Maryland campaign

Antietam CampaignMarylandinvasion of Maryland
The first fatalities of the war happened during the Baltimore Civil War Riots of Thursday/Friday, April 18 - 19th, 1861, and a year and a half later with the single bloodiest day of combat in American military history occurred during the first major Confederate invasion of the North in the Maryland Campaign, just north above the Potomac River, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, (Washington County) at the Battle of Antietam, on 17 September 1862.

Maryland, My Maryland

MarylandMaryland state songMaryland! My Maryland!
The disorder inspired James Ryder Randall, a Marylander living in Louisiana, to write a poem which would be put to music and, in 1939, become the state song, "Maryland, My Maryland" (it remains the official state song to this day).
It became instantly popular in Maryland, aided by a series of unpopular federal actions there, and throughout the South.

Battle of South Mountain

South MountainCrampton's GapFox's Gap
Preceded by the pivotal skirmishes at three mountain passes of Crampton, Fox and Turner's Gaps to the east in the Battle of South Mountain, Antietam (also known in the South as the Battle of Sharpsburg), though tactically a draw, was strategically enough of a Union victory in the second year of the war to give 16th President Abraham Lincoln the opportunity to issue in September 1862, the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect January 1st, 1863, which declared slaves in the rebelling states of the Confederacy (but not those in the areas already occupied by the Union Army or in border slave states like Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky, and Missouri) to be "henceforth and forever free".

Turning point of the American Civil War

turning pointturning point of the warturning points
Although tactically inconclusive, the Battle of Antietam is considered a strategic Union victory and an important turning point of the war, because it forced the end of Lee's invasion of the North, and it allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect on January 1, 1863.
By mid-1861, eleven states had seceded, but four more slave-owning "border states" remained in the Union—Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware.

George H. Steuart (militia general)

George H. SteuartMajor General George H. SteuartGeorge H Steuart
Arrests of Confederate sympathizers and those critical of Lincoln and the war soon followed, and Steuart's brother, the militia general George H. Steuart, fled to Charlottesville, Virginia, after which much of his family's property was confiscated by the Federal Government.
On April 19 Baltimore was disrupted by riots, during which Southern sympathizers attacked Union troops passing through the city by rail, causing what were arguably the first casualties of the Civil War.

Thomas Holliday Hicks

Thomas H. HicksHicksThomas Hicks
The most prominent Maryland leaders and officers during the Civil War included Governor Thomas H. Hicks who, despite his early sympathies for the South, helped prevent the state from seceding, and Confederate Brigadier General George H. Steuart, who was a noted brigade commander under Robert E. Lee in the Army of Northern Virginia.

Maryland Line (CSA)

Maryland Line
On April 19 Baltimore was disrupted by riots, during which Southern sympathizers attacked Union troops passing through the city by rail, causing what were arguably the first casualties of the Civil War.

Arnold Elzey

ElzeyArnold Elzey (Jones)Elzey, Arnold
Maryland Exiles, including Arnold Elzey and brigadier general George H. Steuart, would organize a "Maryland Line" in the Army of Northern Virginia which eventually consisted of one infantry regiment, one infantry battalion, two cavalry battalions and four battalions of artillery.

1st Maryland Infantry, CSA

1st Maryland1st Maryland Battalion1st Maryland Infantry
On May 23, 1862, at the Battle of Front Royal, the 1st Maryland Infantry, CSA was thrown into battle with their fellow Marylanders, the Union 1st Regiment Maryland Volunteer Infantry.

2nd Maryland Infantry

2nd Maryland2nd Regiment Maryland Volunteer Infantry2nd Maryland (USA) Volunteer Infantry
One notable Maryland front line regiment was the 2nd Maryland Infantry, which saw considerable combat action in the Union IX Corps.

2nd Maryland Infantry, CSA

1st Maryland Battalion2nd Maryland1st Maryland Infantry Battalion
Maryland exile George H. Steuart, leading the 2nd Maryland Infantry regiment, is said to have jumped down from his horse, kissed his native soil and stood on his head in jubilation.

Slave states and free states

slave statefree stateslave states
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North.

Southern United States

SouthSouthernAmerican South
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North.

Northern United States

NorthNorthernNorthern states
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North.