Masculinity

masculinemasculinitiesmanlinessmanlyman's manmasculinistm.traditionally masculinea sign of weaknessandrotypes
Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and men.wikipedia
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Machismo

machomachistaMacho culture
Machismo is a form of masculinity that emphasizes power and is often associated with a disregard for consequences and responsibility.
Machismo (from Spanish and Portuguese "macho", male) is the sense of being 'manly' and self-reliant, the concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity."

Virility

virilepotencyviril
Virility (from the Latin vir, "man") is similar to masculinity, but especially emphasizes strength, energy, and sex drive.
Virility (from the Latin virilitas, manhood or virility, derived from Latin vir, man) refers to any of a wide range of masculine characteristics viewed positively.

Androgyny

androgynousandrogyneandrogyn
Those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, and feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification.
Androgyny is the combination of some masculine and feminine characteristics into an ambiguous form.

Femininity

femininefeminityf.
Those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, and feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification.
People who exhibit a combination of both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, and feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification.

Gender role

gender rolesgender stereotypesgender norms
In sociology, this labeling is known as gender assumptions and is part of socialization to meet the mores of a society.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of masculinity and femininity, although there are exceptions and variations.

Sex differences in psychology

Sex and psychologySex differences in human psychologygender-specific behaviors
Scholars have debated the extent to which gender identity and gender-specific behaviors are due to socialization versus biological factors.
According to feminist psychoanalytic theorist Nancy Chodorow, girls tend to preserve this attachment throughout life and define their identities in relational terms, whereas boys must reject this maternal attachment in order to develop a masculine identity.

Gender identity

gender identitiesgendergender spectrum
Non-standard behavior may be considered indicative of homosexuality, despite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted as distinct concepts.
In most societies, there is a basic division between gender attributes assigned to males and females, a gender binary to which most people adhere and which includes expectations of masculinity and femininity in all aspects of sex and gender: biological sex, gender identity, and gender expression.

Effeminacy

effeminateflamboyantfeminine
When sexuality is defined in terms of object choice (as in early sexology studies), male homosexuality is interpreted as effeminacy.
Effeminacy is the manifestation of traits in a boy or man that are more often associated with feminine nature, behavior, mannerism, style, or gender roles rather than with masculine nature, behavior, mannerisms, style or roles.

Sexual orientation

sexualitysexual preferenceorientation
Non-standard behavior may be considered indicative of homosexuality, despite the fact that gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are widely accepted as distinct concepts.
Androphilia describes sexual attraction to masculinity; gynephilia describes the sexual attraction to femininity.

Transgender hormone therapy (female-to-male)

hormone replacement therapymasculinizing hormone therapyhormone replacement therapy (female-to-male)
Proponents of this view argue that women can become men hormonally and physically, and many aspects of masculinity assumed to be natural are linguistically and culturally driven.
Transgender hormone therapy of the female-to-male (FTM) type, also known as masculinizing hormone therapy, is a form of hormone therapy and sex reassignment therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from feminine (or androgynous) to masculine.

Raewyn Connell

R.W. ConnellR. W. ConnellConnell
Since what constitutes masculinity has varied by time and place, according to Raewyn Connell, it is more appropriate to discuss "masculinities" than a single overarching concept.
Connell is best known outside Australia for studies of the social construction of masculinity.

Male

malesmasculine
It is distinct from the definition of the biological male sex, as both males and females can exhibit masculine traits.

Bear (gay culture)

bearbearsbear community
A recent development is the portrayal of gay men in the LGBT community as "bears", a subculture of gay men celebrating rugged masculinity and "secondary sexual characteristics of the male: facial hair, body hair, proportional size, baldness".
In male gay culture, a bear is often a larger or obese hairier man who projects an image of rugged masculinity.

Hero

heroineheroismwar hero
According to David Rosen, the traditional view of scholars (such as J. R. R. Tolkien) that Beowulf is a tale of medieval heroism overlooks the similarities between Beowulf and the monster Grendel.
Their story is told in a way as to match the expectations of femininity ex: maternal love, compassion, fidelity, resistance, defense, etc. So the set of strengths in which, historically, a heroine could express her value, are overall not the same and perceived as less valuable than their masculine counterpart.

Hegemonic masculinity

toxic masculinityanxiety among menhegemonic
Second-wave pro-feminism paid greater attention to issues of sexuality, particularly the relationship between homosexual men and hegemonic masculinity.
In gender studies, hegemonic masculinity is part of R. W. Connell's gender order theory, which recognizes multiple masculinities that vary across time, culture and the individual.

Sissy

sissiessissyphobiacissy
More likely to face bullying and harassment throughout their lives, they are taunted by derogatory words (such as "sissy") implying feminine qualities.
Generally, sissy implies a lack of courage, strength, athleticism, coordination, testosterone, male libido, and stoic calm, all of which have traditionally been associated with masculinity and considered important to the male role in Western society.

Butch and femme

butchfemmebutch lesbian
In LGBT cultures, masculine women are often referred to as "butch". In Western culture, female masculinity has been codified into identities such as "tomboy" and "butch".
Butch and femme are terms used in the lesbian subculture to ascribe or acknowledge a masculine (butch) or feminine (femme) identity with its associated traits, behaviors, styles, self-perception, and so on.

Men's liberation movement

Men's liberationCalifornia Men's Gathering
This shift led to increased cooperation between the men's liberation and gay liberation movements developing, in part, because masculinity was understood as a social construct and in response to the universalization of "men" in previous men's movements.
The men's liberation movement stresses the costs of some negative portions of "traditional" masculinity, whereas the men's rights movement is largely about unequal or unfair treatment of men by modern institutions because of, or in spite of those traits ubiquitous to traditional masculinity.

Tomboy

tomboyishboyishtom boy
In Western culture, female masculinity has been codified into identities such as "tomboy" and "butch".
Common characteristics include wearing masculine clothing and engaging in games and activities that are physical in nature and are considered in many cultures to be unfeminine or the domain of boys.

Victorian masculinity

masculinitythe men
During the Victorian era, masculinity underwent a transformation from traditional heroism.

Pro-feminism

pro-feministmale feministnew man
Second-wave pro-feminism paid greater attention to issues of sexuality, particularly the relationship between homosexual men and hegemonic masculinity.

Patriarchy

patriarchalpatriarchal societypatriarch
According to Pleck, to avoid male oppression of women, themselves and other men, patriarchal structures, institutions and discourse must be eliminated from Western society.

Michael Kimmel

Kimmel, MichaelMichael S KimmelMicheal S. Kimmel
Michael Kimmel adds that the trope "You're so gay" indicates a lack of masculinity, rather than homosexual orientation.

Hypermasculinity

hypermasculinehyper-masculinehyper-masculinity
Men's-rights activists worked to stop second-wave feminists from influencing the gay-rights movement, promoting hypermasculinity as inherent to gay sexuality.

Sex and gender distinction

sex or gendersex and genderdistinct
It is distinct from the definition of the biological male sex, as both males and females can exhibit masculine traits.