Mass spectrometry

mass spectrometerMSmass spectrometricmass spectrometersmass spectroscopymass spectrographmass analyzermass spectramass spectrometristmass spectrum
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.wikipedia
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Mass spectrum

mass spectram/zmass
The results are typically presented as a mass spectrum, a plot of intensity as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio.
It is a histogram usually acquired using an instrument called a mass spectrometer.

Mass-to-charge ratio

charge-to-mass ratiom/zmass to charge ratios
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.
It appears in the scientific fields of electron microscopy, cathode ray tubes, accelerator physics, nuclear physics, Auger electron spectroscopy, cosmology and mass spectrometry.

Calutron

electromagnetic isotope separationcalutronselectromagnetic
Sector mass spectrometers known as calutrons were developed by Ernest O. Lawrence and used for separating the isotopes of uranium during the Manhattan Project.
A calutron is a mass spectrometer originally designed and used for separating the isotopes of uranium.

J. J. Thomson

J.J. ThomsonJoseph John ThomsonSir J. J. Thomson
English scientist J.J. Thomson later improved on the work of Wien by reducing the pressure to create the mass spectrograph.
His experiments to determine the nature of positively charged particles, with Francis William Aston, were the first use of mass spectrometry and led to the development of the mass spectrograph.

Sector mass spectrometer

sector instrumentBainbridge mass spectrometermagnetic sector
Sector mass spectrometers known as calutrons were developed by Ernest O. Lawrence and used for separating the isotopes of uranium during the Manhattan Project.
A sector instrument is a general term for a class of mass spectrometer that uses a static electric or magnetic sector or some combination of the two (separately in space) as a mass analyzer.

Ion

cationanionions
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions.
These are used in a multitude of devices such as mass spectrometers, optical emission spectrometers, particle accelerators, ion implanters, and ion engines.

Francis William Aston

Francis AstonF.W. AstonFrancis W. Aston
Modern techniques of mass spectrometry were devised by Arthur Jeffrey Dempster and F.W. Aston in 1918 and 1919 respectively.
Francis William Aston FRS (1 September 1877 – 20 November 1945) was an English chemist and physicist who won the 1922 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in many non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole number rule.

Ernest Lawrence

Ernest O. LawrenceE.O. LawrenceErnest Orlando Lawrence
Sector mass spectrometers known as calutrons were developed by Ernest O. Lawrence and used for separating the isotopes of uranium during the Manhattan Project.
It used devices known as calutrons, a hybrid of the standard laboratory mass spectrometer and cyclotron.

Electrospray ionization

ESIelectrosprayelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry
In 2002, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to John Bennett Fenn for the development of electrospray ionization (ESI) and Koichi Tanaka for the development of soft laser desorption (SLD) and their application to the ionization of biological macromolecules, especially proteins. Examples include fast atom bombardment (FAB), chemical ionization (CI), atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), electrospray ionization (ESI), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI).
Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a technique used in mass spectrometry to produce ions using an electrospray in which a high voltage is applied to a liquid to create an aerosol.

Ion source

Electron Beam Ion Sourceplasma desorption mass spectrometryAtmospheric pressure ionization
The ionizer converts a portion of the sample into ions.
Ion sources are used to form ions for mass spectrometers, optical emission spectrometers, particle accelerators, ion implanters and ion engines.

Arthur Jeffrey Dempster

Arthur J. DempsterA. J. DempsterA. Dempster
Modern techniques of mass spectrometry were devised by Arthur Jeffrey Dempster and F.W. Aston in 1918 and 1919 respectively.
Arthur Jeffrey Dempster (August 14, 1886 – March 11, 1950) was a Canadian-American physicist best known for his work in mass spectrometry and his discovery in 1935 of the uranium isotope 235 U.

John Fenn (chemist)

John FennJohn Bennett FennJohn B. Fenn
In 2002, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to John Bennett Fenn for the development of electrospray ionization (ESI) and Koichi Tanaka for the development of soft laser desorption (SLD) and their application to the ionization of biological macromolecules, especially proteins.
Fenn shared half of the award with Koichi Tanaka for their work in mass spectrometry.

Electron multiplier

channeltronchannel electron multiplier
The ions are detected by a mechanism capable of detecting charged particles, such as an electron multiplier.
In mass spectrometry electron multipliers are often used as a detector of ions that have been separated by a mass analyzer of some sort.

Optical spectrometer

spectrographspectroscopeoptical spectrum analyzer
Early spectrometry devices that measured the mass-to-charge ratio of ions were called mass spectrographs which consisted of instruments that recorded a spectrum of mass values on a photographic plate.

Electron ionization

electron bombardmentelectron impact ionizationEI
Electron ionization and chemical ionization are used for gases and vapors.
EI was one of the first ionization techniques developed for mass spectrometry.

Anode ray

canal raysanode rayscanal ray
Goldstein called these positively charged anode rays "Kanalstrahlen"; the standard translation of this term into English is "canal rays".
Later work on anode rays by Wilhelm Wien and J. J. Thomson led to the development of mass spectrometry.

Chemical ionization

CIchemically ionizes
Electron ionization and chemical ionization are used for gases and vapors. Examples include fast atom bombardment (FAB), chemical ionization (CI), atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), electrospray ionization (ESI), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI).
Chemical ionization (CI) is a soft ionization technique used in mass spectrometry.

Koichi Tanaka

Kōichi Tanaka
In 2002, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to John Bennett Fenn for the development of electrospray ionization (ESI) and Koichi Tanaka for the development of soft laser desorption (SLD) and their application to the ionization of biological macromolecules, especially proteins.
Koichi Tanaka is a Japanese electrical engineer who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for developing a novel method for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules with John Bennett Fenn and Kurt Wüthrich (the latter for work in NMR spectroscopy).

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

ICP-MSDRCInductively coupled plasma
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources are used primarily for cation analysis of a wide array of sample types.
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that uses an Inductively coupled plasma to ionize the sample.

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

GC-MSgas chromatography-mass spectrometryGC/MS
Thus EI is coupled predominantly with GC, i.e. GC-MS, where the entire system is under high vacuum.
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.

Spectrum

spectraenergy spectrumspectral
Early spectrometry devices that measured the mass-to-charge ratio of ions were called mass spectrographs which consisted of instruments that recorded a spectrum of mass values on a photographic plate.
The term now applies to any signal that can be measured or decomposed along a continuous variable such as energy in electron spectroscopy or mass-to-charge ratio in mass spectrometry.

Fast atom bombardment

CF-FABfast-atom bombardmentspectrometry, mass, fast atom bombardment
Examples include fast atom bombardment (FAB), chemical ionization (CI), atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI), electrospray ionization (ESI), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Others include glow discharge, field desorption (FD), fast atom bombardment (FAB), thermospray, desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS), Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spark ionization and thermal ionization (TIMS).
Fast atom bombardment (FAB) is an ionization technique used in mass spectrometry in which a beam of high energy atoms strikes a surface to create ions.

Direct analysis in real time

DART ion sourceDARTdirect analysis in real time (DART)
Others include glow discharge, field desorption (FD), fast atom bombardment (FAB), thermospray, desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS), Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spark ionization and thermal ionization (TIMS).
In mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time (DART) is an ion source that produces electronically or vibronically excited-state species from gases such as helium, argon, or nitrogen that ionize atmospheric molecules or dopant molecules.

Thermospray

Thermospray ionization
Others include glow discharge, field desorption (FD), fast atom bombardment (FAB), thermospray, desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS), Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), spark ionization and thermal ionization (TIMS).
As a form of atmospheric pressure ionization in mass spectrometry these droplets are then ionized via a low-current discharge electrode to create a solvent ion plasma.

High-performance liquid chromatography

HPLChigh performance liquid chromatographyliquid chromatography
However, EI is not suitable for coupling to HPLC, i.e. LC-MS, since at atmospheric pressure, the filaments used to generate electrons burn out rapidly.
Various detectors are in common use, such as UV/Vis, photodiode array (PDA) or based on mass spectrometry.