Massachusett language

WampanoagMassachusettWampanoag languageNatick languageAlgonquianNarragansettWôpanâak languageMassachusett/NarragansettMassachusettsNatick
The Massachusett language is an Algonquian language of the Algic language family, formerly spoken by several peoples of eastern coastal and southeastern Massachusetts.wikipedia
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Jessie Little Doe Baird

Baird, Jessie Little Doe
The revitalization of the language began in 1993 when Jessie Little Doe Baird (at the time with the last name Fermino) began the Wôpanâak Language Reclamation Project (WLRP).
Jessie Little Doe Baird (also Jessie Little Doe Fermino, born 18 November 1963) is a linguist known for her efforts to revive the Wampanoag language.

John Eliot (missionary)

John EliotApostle EliotJohn Eliot’s
John Eliot's translation of the Christian Bible in 1663 using the Natick dialect, known as Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God, was the first printed in the Americas, the first Bible translated by a non-native speaker, and one of the earliest examples of a Bible translation into a previously unwritten language.
John Eliot began to study the Massachusett or Wampanoag language, which was the language of the local Indians.

Algonquian languages

AlgonquianAlgonquian languageAlgonquin
The Massachusett language is an Algonquian language of the Algic language family, formerly spoken by several peoples of eastern coastal and southeastern Massachusetts. Massachusett is in the Eastern branch of Algonquian languages, which comprises all the known Algonquian languages spoken from the Canadian Maritimes southward to the Carolinas.

Eastern Algonquian languages

Eastern AlgonquianAlgonquianEastern Algonquian language
Massachusett is in the Eastern branch of Algonquian languages, which comprises all the known Algonquian languages spoken from the Canadian Maritimes southward to the Carolinas.

Massachusetts

MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
The Massachusett language is an Algonquian language of the Algic language family, formerly spoken by several peoples of eastern coastal and southeastern Massachusetts.
The Wampanoag tribe maintains reservations at Aquinnah on Martha's Vineyard and at Mashpee on Cape Cod—with an ongoing native language revival project underway since 1993, while the Nipmuc maintain two state-recognized reservations in the central part of the state, including one at Grafton.

Eliot Indian Bible

Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum GodAlgonquian BibleEliot's Indian Bible
John Eliot's translation of the Christian Bible in 1663 using the Natick dialect, known as Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God, was the first printed in the Americas, the first Bible translated by a non-native speaker, and one of the earliest examples of a Bible translation into a previously unwritten language.
English Puritan missionary John Eliot produced a translation of the Geneva Bible into the indigenous Massachusett language.

Samoset

When the Pilgrims established their outpost, they were greeted in English by Samoset, originally an Abenaki of coastal Maine, and Tisquantum ('Squanto'), a local Wôpanâak, but both of their home villages were also wiped out by an epidemic caused by infectious agents unknown in the New World.
The Abenaki language is an Algonquian language related to the Massachusett language of the Nauset and Wampanoag people of the area around Plymouth Colony, and Samoset was visiting Wampanoag chief Massasoit at the time of the historic event.

Experience Mayhew

Mayhew family
Experience Mayhew, himself bilingual in the language and from a direct line of missionaries to the Indians of Martha's Vineyard, where the speech was said to be completely unintelligible to neighboring Wampanoag from the mainland noted that '...
Having thoroughly mastered the Wôpanâak language, which he had learned in infancy, he was employed by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England to make a new version of the Psalms and of the Gospel of John, which he did in 1709 in parallel columns of English and Indian.

Harvard Indian College

Indian College
At least a handful of Indians attended classes to prepare them for assuming the Indian mission at Harvard University prior to the construction of the Indian College, such as James Printer and John Sassamon that would later assist Eliot with his translations, and Jethro, a Nashaway (northern Nipmuc) who later was preacher at Wamesit.
Under the missionary John Eliot's direction, in 1663 the college printed a translation of the Bible into Massachusett language, which was the first Bible in any language printed in British North America.

Hiacoomes

Students would later include Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck and Joel Hiacoomes, son of Hiacoomes, two Wampanoag from Martha's Vineyard; Eleazar, a Wampanoag; and John Wampas, a Nipmuc who was later appointed by his people to protect their rights and land with his bilingual talent, but who betrayed his people to curry favor from the English.
Hiacoomes (~1610s – 1690) was a Wampanoag American Indian from the island of Martha's Vineyard, (Wampanoag: Noepe), who in 1643 became the first member of his society to convert to Christianity under the tutelage of the missionary Thomas Mayhew Jr.

Mashpee, Massachusetts

MashpeeMashpee WarriorsTown of Mashpee
Contemporary speakers are restricted to the area surrounding four communities on Cape Cod and the Islands and nearby regions just a little 'off Cape' including Mashpee, Aquinnah, Freetown, and Cedarville, Plymouth which are the home of the federally recognized Mashpee and Aquinnah and state recognized Assonet and Herring Pond tribes of Wampanoag that participate in the Wôpanâak Language Reclamation Project.
A Wampanoag language Immersion school called Wôpanâôt8ây Pâhshaneekamuq is expected to open in Mashpee in 2016, serving preschool students in its first year and kindergarten students starting in 2017.

Dorcas Honorable

The language survived on Nantucket until the death of the widow Dorcas Honorable in 1855.
She was of Wampanoag origin, and was raised speaking the Massachusett language, a language that is now extinct.

Massachusett Pidgin English

Massachusett Pidgin English was mostly English in vocabulary, but included numerous loan words, grammar features and calques of Massachusett Pidgin.

Hard clam

quahogMercenaria mercenariaquahogs
Most of the local dialectal words suffered the same fate, but a legacy of it survives in the use of 'quahog' and 'chogset' to refer to the 'hard-shelled clam' or 'round clam' Mercinaria mercinaria and an edible wrasse fish, Tautoga onitis known elsewhere as 'black porgy,' 'chub,' 'blackfish' or 'oyster-fish.' The dwindled vocabulary, only fifty or so terms from New England are still current and most only locally are nevertheless important for two reasons.
The word comes from the Narragansett word "poquauhock", which is similar in Wampanoag and some other Algonquian languages; it is first attested in North American English in 1794.

Mugwumps

Mugwump
The jocular word "mugwump", noted as early as 1832, is from Algonquian mugquomp, "important person, kingpin" (from mugumquomp, "war leader"), implying that they were "sanctimonious" or "holier-than-thou" in holding themselves aloof from party politics.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

MassachusettsMassachusetts Bay CompanyMassachusetts Bay
The first English settlements, the Plymouth Colony by the Pilgrims in 1620, and the Massachusetts Bay Colony by the Puritans in 1629, both were founded in Massachusett-language speaking territory.

Quiripi language

QuiripiQuiripi-Naugatuck-UnquachogUnquachog
For example, New Englanders used 'wauregan' to mean 'handsome' and 'showy' until the end of the nineteenth century from an SNEA R-dialect, most likely from Quiripi wauregan, but the first settlers in Massachusetts were already familiar with the older cognate form 'wunnegin' from Massachusett wunnégan (wuneekan) from N-dialect Massachusett.
It shared a number of linguistic features with the other Algonquian languages of southern New England, such as Massachusett and Mohegan-Pequot, including the shifting of Proto-Eastern Algonquian * and * to and, respectively, and the palatalization of earlier * before certain front vowels.

Acushnet, Massachusetts

AcushnetAcushnet Public LibraryAcushnet, MA
Very few cities and towns have Indian names, most ultimately linked to towns and villages in England, but the ones that probably have a Massachusett origin include Acushnet ('calm water resting place'), Aquinnah ('under the hills').
The name "Acushnet", which is also the name of the river the town lies on, comes from the Wampanoag Cushnea, meaning "peaceful resting place near water", originally designating the fact that the tribe which sold the land to the Puritans inhabited the lands leading up to the river.

Moccasin

moccasinsDriving moccasinsmocassins
Etymologically, the moccasin derives from the Algonquian language Powhatan word makasin (cognate to Massachusett mohkisson / mokussin, Ojibwa makizin, Mi'kmaq mksɨn), and from the Proto-Algonquian word *maxkeseni (shoe).

Wampanoag

Wampanoag peopleWampanoagsWampanoag Tribe
The language is also known as Natick or Wôpanâak (Wampanoag), and historically as Pokanoket, Indian or Nonantum.
The last speakers of the Massachusett language Wôpanâak died more than 100 years ago, although some Wampanoag people have been working on a language revival project since 1993.

Mohicans

MahicanMohicanMohican Indians
Many of the indigenous people decided to leave, seeking safety with the Abenaki to the north or the Mahican to the west, where they would eventually assimilate into the host tribe.
It was an Algonquian N-dialect, as were Massachusett and Wampanoag.

Powhatan language

PowhatanVirginia Algonquianpim
It is closely related to Unami, Munsee, Nanticoke, Massachusett, and other Eastern Algonquian languages, is more distantly related to Ojibwe, Cree, Cheyenne, Blackfoot, and other Algonquian languages, and is most distantly related to Wiyot and Yurok.

Nauset

Native American tribe
Although a distinct tribe, they were often subject to Wampanoag overlordship and shared many similar aspects of culture, agricultural practices, and a common tongue, the Massachusett language.

Kenneth L. Hale

Ken HaleKenneth HaleHale
Working with Dr. Kenneth Hale and later Norvin Richards, Baird was able to reconstruct the pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary of the Indian documents and English missionary translations.
Among his students are the Tohono O'odham linguist Ofelia Zepeda, the Hopi linguist LaVerne Masayesva Jeanne, Navajo linguists Paul Platero, MaryAnn Willie, and Ellavina Tsosie Perkins, and Wampanoag linguist Jessie Little Doe Baird.

Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck

Caleb Cheeshahteaumauk
Students would later include Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck and Joel Hiacoomes, son of Hiacoomes, two Wampanoag from Martha's Vineyard; Eleazar, a Wampanoag; and John Wampas, a Nipmuc who was later appointed by his people to protect their rights and land with his bilingual talent, but who betrayed his people to curry favor from the English.