Massachusetts Bay Colony

MassachusettsMassachusetts Baycolonial MassachusettsMassachusetts Bay CompanyMassachusetts colonyBay ColonycolonialMassachusetts Bay coloniesColony of Massachusettsplantation
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.wikipedia
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Province of Massachusetts Bay

MassachusettsMassachusetts Baycolonial Massachusetts
The Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628–1691) was an English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
The charter took effect on May 14, 1692 and included the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the direct successor.

New England

southern New EnglandNew EnglanderNew England region
The lands of the settlement were located in southern New England in Massachusetts, with initial settlements situated on two natural harbors and surrounding land, about 15.4 mi apart —the areas around Salem and Boston. The territory nominally administered by the colony covered much of central New England, including portions of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Connecticut.
Ten years later, more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony.

Connecticut

CTState of ConnecticutConn.
The territory nominally administered by the colony covered much of central New England, including portions of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Connecticut.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony; other settlers from Massachusetts founded the Saybrook Colony and the New Haven Colony.

Salem, Massachusetts

SalemSalem, MASalem Town
The lands of the settlement were located in southern New England in Massachusetts, with initial settlements situated on two natural harbors and surrounding land, about 15.4 mi apart —the areas around Salem and Boston.
Conant's leadership provided the stability to survive the first two years, but John Endecott replaced him by order of the Massachusetts Bay Company.

Plymouth Colony

PlymouthPlymouth PlantationNew Plymouth
The earlier Dutch colony of New Netherlands disputed many of these claims, arguing that they held rights to lands beyond Rhode Island up to the western side of Cape Cod and the Plymouth Colony.
Plymouth played a central role in King Philip's War (1675–78), one of several Indian Wars, but the colony was ultimately merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony and other territories in 1691 to form the Province of Massachusetts Bay.

Massachusetts

MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
The lands of the settlement were located in southern New England in Massachusetts, with initial settlements situated on two natural harbors and surrounding land, about 15.4 mi apart —the areas around Salem and Boston.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett, likely derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus(ây) "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative" (the '8' in these words refers to the 'oo' sound according to the Wôpanâak orthographic chart).

Pequot War

boiled over into warconflictcourse of war
The colonists initially had good relationships with the local Indian populations, but frictions developed that ultimately led to the Pequot War (1636–38) and then to King Philip's War (1675–78), after which most of the Indians in southern New England made peace treaties with the colonists (apart from the Pequot tribe, whose survivors were largely absorbed into the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes following the Pequot War).
The Pequot War was an armed conflict that took place between 1636 and 1638 in New England between the Pequot tribe and an alliance of the colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies and their allies from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes.

Freeman (Colonial)

freemanfreemenfreemanship
Its governors were elected, and the electorate were limited to freemen who had been examined for their religious views and formally admitted to the local church.
In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, a man had to be a member of the Church to be a freeman; in neighboring Plymouth Colony a man did not need to be a member of the Church, but he had to be elected to this privilege by the General Court.

Maine

MEState of MaineM'''ain'''E
The territory nominally administered by the colony covered much of central New England, including portions of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Connecticut.
The province within its current boundaries became part of Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1652.

Dominion of New England

New EnglandDominion
King James II established the Dominion of New England in 1686 to bring all of the New England colonies under firmer crown control.
The Dominion encompassed a very large area from the Delaware River in the south to Penobscot Bay in the north, composed of the Province of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut Colony, Province of New York, and Province of New Jersey, plus a small portion of Maine.

Wampanoag

WampanoagsWampanoag tribeWampanoag Confederacy
Prior to the arrival of European colonists on the eastern shore of New England, the area around Massachusetts Bay was the territory of several Algonquian-speaking tribes, including the Massachusetts, Nausets, and Wampanoags.
Researchers suggest that the losses from the epidemic were so large that English colonists were able to establish their settlements in the Massachusetts Bay Colony more easily.

King Philip's War

King Philip’s Wara year-long warconflict
The colonists initially had good relationships with the local Indian populations, but frictions developed that ultimately led to the Pequot War (1636–38) and then to King Philip's War (1675–78), after which most of the Indians in southern New England made peace treaties with the colonists (apart from the Pequot tribe, whose survivors were largely absorbed into the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes following the Pequot War).
The Rhode Island, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies each developed separate relations with the Wampanoags, Nipmucks, Narragansetts, Mohegans, Pequots, and other tribes of New England, whose territories historically had differing boundaries.

Thomas Gardner (planter)

Thomas GardnerEssex countyHathorne
In 1623, the Plymouth Council for New England (successor to the Plymouth Company) established a small fishing village at Cape Ann under the supervision of the Dorchester Company, with Thomas Gardner as its overseer.
Thomas Gardner (c. 1592 – 1674) was an Overseer of the "old planters" party of the Dorchester Company who landed in 1624 at Cape Ann to form a colony at what is now known as Gloucester.

John White (colonist priest)

John WhiteRev. John WhiteRev John White
This company was originally organized through the efforts of Puritan minister John White (1575–1648) of Dorchester, in the English county of Dorset.
He was instrumental in obtaining charters for the New England Company, and the Massachusetts Bay Company.

Gloucester, Massachusetts

GloucesterGloucester, MACity of Gloucester
Their settlement was abandoned at present-day Gloucester, but a few settlers remained in the area, including Roger Conant, establishing a settlement a little further south, near the village of the Naumkeag tribe.
Gloucester was founded at Cape Ann by an expedition called the "Dorchester Company" of men from Dorchester (in the county of Dorset, England) chartered by James I in 1623.

Wessagusset Colony

Wessagussetsettled nearby
There were other short-lived colonial settlements in 1623 and 1624 at Weymouth, Massachusetts; Thomas Weston's Wessagusset Colony failed, as did an effort by Robert Gorges to establish an overarching colonial structure.
It was the second settlement in Massachusetts, predating the Massachusetts Bay Colony by six years.

John Endecott

Governor John EndecottEndecottEndicott
The company sent approximately 100 new settlers with provisions to join Conant in 1628, led by Governor's Assistant John Endecott, one of the grantees.
John Endecott (also spelled Endicott;before 1600 – 15 March 1664/5), regarded as one of the Fathers of New England, was the longest-serving governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which became the State of Massachusetts.

Matthew Cradock

The company elected Matthew Cradock as its first governor and immediately began organizing provisions and recruiting settlers.
Matthew Cradock (also spelled Craddock and Craddocke) (died 27 May 1641) was a London merchant, politician, and the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company.

John Winthrop

Governor WinthropWinthropGovernor John Winthrop
They began arriving at Salem in June and carried more than 700 colonists, Governor John Winthrop, and the colonial charter.
John Winthrop (12 January 1587/88 – 26 March 1649) was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the second major settlement in New England, following Plymouth Colony.

John Cotton (minister)

John CottonMr. CottonCotton
Many ministers reacted to the repressive religious policies of England, making the trip with their congregations, among whom were John Cotton, Roger Williams, Thomas Hooker, and others.
John Cotton (4 December 1585 – 23 December 1652) was a clergyman in England and the American colonies and considered the preeminent minister and theologian of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Cambridge Agreement

an agreement was reached
This was followed by the Cambridge Agreement later that year, in which a group of investors agreed to emigrate and work to buy out others who would not emigrate.
The Cambridge Agreement was an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company, at Cambridge, England.

Winthrop Fleet

a larger fleetfleetoriginal Puritan expedition
A flotilla of ships sailed from England beginning in April 1630, sometimes known as the Winthrop Fleet.
The Winthrop Fleet was a group of 11 ships led by John Winthrop out of a total of 16 funded by the Massachusetts Bay Company which together carried between 700 and 1,000 Puritans plus livestock and provisions from England to New England over the summer of 1630, during the first period of the Great Migration.

Roger Williams

founderRoger WilliamRoger Williams,
Many ministers reacted to the repressive religious policies of England, making the trip with their congregations, among whom were John Cotton, Roger Williams, Thomas Hooker, and others.
Williams was expelled by the Puritan leaders from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for spreading "new and dangerous ideas", and he established the Providence Plantations in 1636 as a refuge offering what he called "liberty of conscience".

Antinomian Controversy

Free Grace Controversyreligious controversytheological controversy
Minister John Wheelwright was banished in the wake of the Antinomian Controversy (like Anne Hutchinson), and he moved north to found Exeter, New Hampshire.
The Antinomian Controversy, also known as the Free Grace Controversy, was a religious and political conflict in the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.

John Wheelwright

Rev. John Wheelwright
Minister John Wheelwright was banished in the wake of the Antinomian Controversy (like Anne Hutchinson), and he moved north to found Exeter, New Hampshire.
John Wheelwright (c.1592–1679), was a Puritan clergyman in England and America, noted for being banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Antinomian Controversy, and for subsequently establishing the town of Exeter, New Hampshire.