A report on Material

Substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an object.

- Material

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A diagram representing at the microscopic level the differences between homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, compounds, and elements

Mixture

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A diagram representing at the microscopic level the differences between homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, compounds, and elements

In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically bonded.

Handmade floral patterns on textiles, The production of textiles which were initially artisanal work, has grown into a vast field today that includes the production of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and various fibrous products for different domestic and industrial usages.

Textile

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Umbrella term that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, filaments, threads, different fabric types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics.

Umbrella term that includes various fiber-based materials, including fibers, yarns, filaments, threads, different fabric types, etc. At first, the word "textiles" only referred to woven fabrics.

Handmade floral patterns on textiles, The production of textiles which were initially artisanal work, has grown into a vast field today that includes the production of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and various fibrous products for different domestic and industrial usages.
In textile production, longitudinal yarns are referred to as warp and are interlaced with weft or filing yarns to create a woven fabric.
Weaving
Cloth Merchant's Shop
A replica draper's shop at the Museum of Lincolnshire Life, Lincoln, England
A baby wearing many items of soft winter clothing: headband, cap, fur-lined coat, scarf and sweater
Technical textile is a branch of textile that focuses on the protection, safety and other functional performance attributes of textiles, unlike domestic textiles, where the primary focus is aesthetics and comfort., an EOD technician wearing a bomb suit Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) suit
Nonwoven geotextile bags are much more robust than woven bags of the same thickness.
Early method of bleaching cotton and linen goods on lawns
thumb|Textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan
thumb|Magnified view of a plain or tabby weave textile
thumb|right|Fabric shop in canal town Mukalla, Yemen
thumb|Late antique textile, Egyptian, now in the Dumbarton Oaks collection
thumb|Mrs. Condé Nast wearing a silk Fortuny tea gown
thumb|right|Textiles made from Alpaca wool at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador
thumb|The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest Romblon.
thumb|right|A double ikat weaving made by the Tausug people from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá)
thumb|right|Advertisement for Zepel, the trade name used to market Teflon as a fabric treatment
thumb|A weaving shed of the Finlayson & Co factory in Tampere, Finland in 1932<ref>Doria-archive of the Finnish National Library{{full citation needed|date=October 2021}}</ref>
thumb|Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales in the 1940s
thumb|right|Cotton fiber
thumb|right|Nylon
thumb|A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton
thumb|Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland
thumb|Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methods<ref>Art-Gourds.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081013043017/http://art-gourds.com/the_craft_embroideries/en|date=2008-10-13}} Traditional Peruvian embroidery production methods</ref>
alt=|thumb|A modern umbrella fabric has specific requirements for colour fastness to light, water and wet rubbing, and permeability
thumb|Appliqué cross. The edges are covered and stiches are hidden. It is overlaid with decorative gold thread.
thumb|Clothing made of textiles, Thailand
thumb|Close-up view of a Barong Tagalog made with piña fiber in the Philippines
thumb|A fabric tunnel in Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh.
Sample of calico printed with a six-colour machine by Walter Crum & Co., from Frederick Crace Calvert, Dyeing and Calico Printing (1878).
thumb|A textile factory in Israel, 1969.

In the contemporary world, textiles satisfy the material needs for versatile applications, from simple daily clothing to bulletproof jackets, spacesuits, and doctor's gowns.

Iron, shown here as fragments and a 1 cm3 cube, is an example of a chemical element that is a metal.

Metal

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Iron, shown here as fragments and a 1 cm3 cube, is an example of a chemical element that is a metal.
A metal in the form of a gravy boat made from stainless steel, an alloy largely composed of iron, carbon, and chromium
Gallium crystals
A metal rod with a hot-worked eyelet. Hot-working exploits the capacity of metal to be plastically deformed.
Samples of babbitt metal, an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper, used in bearings to reduce friction
A sculpture cast in nickel silver—an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc that looks like silver
Rhodium, a noble metal, shown here as 1 g of powder, a 1 g pressed cylinder, and a 1 g pellet
A sample of diaspore, an aluminum oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH)
A neodymium compound alloy magnet of composition Nd2Fe14B on a nickel-iron bracket from a computer hard drive
A pile of compacted steel scraps, ready for recycling
The Artemision Bronze showing either Poseidon or Zeus, c. 460 BCE, National Archaeological Museum, Athens. The figure is more than 2 m in height.
De re metallica, 1555
Platinum crystals
A disc of highly enriched uranium that was recovered from scrap processed at the Y-12 National Security Complex, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Ultrapure cerium under argon, 1.5 gm
White-hot steel pours like water from a 35-ton electric furnace, at the Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corporation, in Brackenridge, Pennsylvania.
A Ho-Mg-Zn icosahedral quasicrystal formed as a pentagonal dodecahedron, the dual of the icosahedron
Body-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 2-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. chromium, iron, and tungsten
Face-centered cubic crystal structure, with a 4-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. aluminum, copper, and gold
Hexagonal close-packed crystal structure, with a 6-atom unit cell, as found in e.g. titanium, cobalt, and zinc
Niobium crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} anodized niobium cube for comparison
Molybdenum crystals and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} molybdenum cube for comparison
Tantalum single crystal, some crystalline fragments, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tantalum cube for comparison
Tungsten rods with evaporated crystals, partially oxidized with colorful tarnish, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} tungsten cube for comparison
Rhenium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Native copper
Gold crystals
Crystalline silver
A slice of meteoric iron
alt=Three, dark broccoli shaped clumps of oxidised lead with grossly distended buds, and a cube of lead which has a dull silvery appearance.| oxidised lead
A brass weight (35 g)
A droplet of solidified molten tin
alt=A silvery molasses-like liquid being poured into a circular container with a height equivalent to a smaller coin on its edge| Mercury being
Electrum, a natural alloy of silver and gold, was often used for making coins. Shown is the Roman god Apollo, and on the obverse, a Delphi tripod (circa 310–305 BCE).
A plate made of pewter, an alloy of 85–99% tin and (usually) copper. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East.
A pectoral (ornamental breastplate) made of tumbaga, an alloy of gold and copper
Arsenic, sealed in a container to prevent tarnishing
Zinc fragments and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Antimony, showing its brilliant lustre
Bismuth in crystalline form, with a very thin oxidation layer, and a 1 cm{{sup|3}} bismuth cube
Sodium
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil. Size of the largest pearl is 0.5 cm.
Strontium crystals
Aluminum chunk, 2.6 grams, {{nowrap|1=1 x 2 cm}}
A bar of titanium crystals
Scandium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Lutetium, including a 1 cm{{sup|3}} cube
Hafnium, in the form of a 1.7 kg bar

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well.

A bubble of exhaled gas in water

Physical object

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Collection of matter within a defined contiguous boundary in three-dimensional space.

Collection of matter within a defined contiguous boundary in three-dimensional space.

A bubble of exhaled gas in water

The boundary must be defined and identified by the properties of the material.

Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an atomic force microscope on a surface, under liquid medium. Chain contour length for this polymer is ~204 nm; thickness is ~0.4 nm.

Polymer

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A polymer ( Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part")

A polymer ( Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part")

Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an atomic force microscope on a surface, under liquid medium. Chain contour length for this polymer is ~204 nm; thickness is ~0.4 nm.
Cartoon schematic of polymer molecules
Structure of a styrene-butadiene chain, from a molecular simulation.
Some memorable milestones in the history of polymers
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Microstructure of part of a DNA double helix biopolymer
Branch point in a polymer
A polyethylene sample that has necked under tension.
Thermal transitions in (A) amorphous and (B) semicrystalline polymers, represented as traces from differential scanning calorimetry. As the temperature increases, both amorphous and semicrystalline polymers go through the glass transition (Tg). Amorphous polymers (A) do not exhibit other phase transitions, though semicrystalline polymers (B) undergo crystallization and melting (at temperatures Tc and Tm, respectively).
Phase diagram of the typical mixing behavior of weakly interacting polymer solutions, showing spinodal curves and binodal coexistence curves.
A plastic item with thirty years of exposure to heat and cold, brake fluid, and sunlight. Notice the discoloration, swelling, and crazing of the material
Chlorine attack of acetal resin plumbing joint
Ozone-induced cracking in natural rubber tubing

is a substance or material consisting of very large molecules called macromolecules, composed of many repeating subunits.

A black carbon fibre (used as a reinforcement component) compared to a human hair

Composite material

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A black carbon fibre (used as a reinforcement component) compared to a human hair
Composites are formed by combining materials together to form an overall structure with properties that differ from that of the individual components
Concrete is a mixture of adhesive and aggregate, giving a robust, strong material that is very widely used.
Plywood is used widely in construction
Composite sandwich structure panel used for testing at NASA
Carbon fibre composite part.
Plot of the overall strength of a composite material as a function of fiber volume fraction limited by the upper bound (isostrain) and lower bound (isostress) conditions.
Figure a) shows the isostress condition where the composite materials are perpendicular to the applied force and b) is the isostrain condition that has the layers parallel to the force.
The graph depicts the three fracture modes a composite material may experience depending on the angle of misorientation relative to aligning fibres parallel to the applied stress.

A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material which is produced from two or more constituent materials.