# Mathematical analysis

analysisclassical analysisanalyticanalyticalanalystmathematical analystapplied analysisanalystsmathematicalabstract and applied analysis
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions.wikipedia
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### Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), structure (algebra), space (geometry), and change (mathematical analysis).

### Series (mathematics)

infinite seriesseriespartial sum
and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite series, and analytic functions. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama developed infinite series expansions, like the power series and the Taylor series, of functions such as sine, cosine, tangent and arctangent.
The study of series is a major part of calculus and its generalization, mathematical analysis.

### Geometry

geometricgeometricalgeometries
Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).
By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat.

### Limit (mathematics)

limitlimitsconverge
Mathematical analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with limits
Limits are essential to calculus (and mathematical analysis in general) and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals.

### Function (mathematics)

functionfunctionsmathematical function
These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions. In the 18th century, Euler introduced the notion of mathematical function.
Typically, this occurs in mathematical analysis, where "a function from X to Y " often refers to a function that may have a proper subset of X as domain.

### Archimedes

Archimedes of SyracuseArchimedeanArchimedes Heat Ray
Later, Greek mathematicians such as Eudoxus and Archimedes made more explicit, but informal, use of the concepts of limits and convergence when they used the method of exhaustion to compute the area and volume of regions and solids.
Generally considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, and the area under a parabola.

### Calculus of variations

variationalvariational calculusvariational methods
Descartes and Fermat independently developed analytic geometry, and a few decades later Newton and Leibniz independently developed infinitesimal calculus, which grew, with the stimulus of applied work that continued through the 18th century, into analysis topics such as the calculus of variations, ordinary and partial differential equations, Fourier analysis, and generating functions.
The Calculus of variations is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in functions

### Power series

orderpower series expansiondivision
In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama developed infinite series expansions, like the power series and the Taylor series, of functions such as sine, cosine, tangent and arctangent.
These power series arise primarily in analysis, but also occur in combinatorics as generating functions (a kind of formal power series) and in electrical engineering (under the name of the Z-transform).

### Space (mathematics)

spacemathematical spacespaces
Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space).
Topological spaces are of analytic nature.

### Augustin-Louis Cauchy

CauchyAugustin Louis CauchyAugustin Cauchy
In 1821, Cauchy began to put calculus on a firm logical foundation by rejecting the principle of the generality of algebra widely used in earlier work, particularly by Euler.
Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy (21 August 1789 – 23 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics.

### Calculus

infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus
Descartes and Fermat independently developed analytic geometry, and a few decades later Newton and Leibniz independently developed infinitesimal calculus, which grew, with the stimulus of applied work that continued through the 18th century, into analysis topics such as the calculus of variations, ordinary and partial differential equations, Fourier analysis, and generating functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis.
In mathematics education, calculus denotes courses of elementary mathematical analysis, which are mainly devoted to the study of functions and limits.

### Leonhard Euler

EulerLeonard EulerEuler, Leonhard
In the 18th century, Euler introduced the notion of mathematical function.
He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function.

### René Descartes

DescartesCartesianRene Descartes
Descartes and Fermat independently developed analytic geometry, and a few decades later Newton and Leibniz independently developed infinitesimal calculus, which grew, with the stimulus of applied work that continued through the 18th century, into analysis topics such as the calculus of variations, ordinary and partial differential equations, Fourier analysis, and generating functions.
He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry—used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis.

### Complex analysis

complex variablecomplex functioncomplex functions
He also introduced the concept of the Cauchy sequence, and started the formal theory of complex analysis.
Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

### Bernhard Riemann

RiemannGeorg Friedrich Bernhard RiemannRiemann, Bernhard
In the middle of the 19th century Riemann introduced his theory of integration.
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann ( 17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry.

### Karl Weierstrass

WeierstrassKarl WeierstraßKarl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass
The contributions of these mathematicians and others, such as Weierstrass, developed the -definition of limit approach, thus founding the modern field of mathematical analysis. The last third of the century saw the arithmetization of analysis by Weierstrass, who thought that geometric reasoning was inherently misleading, and introduced the "epsilon-delta" definition of limit.
Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß ; 31 October 1815 – 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern analysis".

### Complete metric space

completecompletioncompleteness
Dedekind then constructed the real numbers by Dedekind cuts, in which irrational numbers are formally defined, which serve to fill the "gaps" between rational numbers, thereby creating a complete set: the continuum of real numbers, which had already been developed by Simon Stevin in terms of decimal expansions.
In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is called complete (or a Cauchy space) if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M or, alternatively, if every Cauchy sequence in M converges in M.

### Limit of a function

limitlimitsconvergence
The last third of the century saw the arithmetization of analysis by Weierstrass, who thought that geometric reasoning was inherently misleading, and introduced the "epsilon-delta" definition of limit.
In mathematics, the limit of a function is a fundamental concept in calculus and analysis concerning the behavior of that function near a particular input.

### Space-filling curve

space filling curvespace filling curvesspace-filling curves
Also, "monsters" (nowhere continuous functions, continuous but nowhere differentiable functions, space-filling curves) began to be investigated.
In mathematical analysis, a space-filling curve is a curve whose range contains the entire 2-dimensional unit square (or more generally an n-dimensional unit hypercube).

### Complex number

complexreal partimaginary part
These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions.
That is to say, the properties of nearness and continuity, which matter in areas such as analysis and topology, are not dealt with.

For instance, an infinite geometric sum is implicit in Zeno's paradox of the dichotomy.
Today's analysis achieves the same result, using limits (see convergent series).

### Real number

realrealsreal-valued
These theories are usually studied in the context of real and complex numbers and functions.
The completeness property of the reals is the basis on which calculus, and, more generally mathematical analysis are built.

### Bhāskara II

The Indian mathematician Bhāskara II gave examples of the derivative and used what is now known as Rolle's theorem in the 12th century.
Preliminary concepts of infinitesimal calculus and mathematical analysis, along with a number of results in trigonometry, differential calculus and integral calculus that are found in the work are of particular interest.

### Functional analysis

functionalfunctional analyticalgebraic function theory
The idea of normed vector space was in the air, and in the 1920s Banach created functional analysis.
Functional analysis is a branch of mathematical analysis, the core of which is formed by the study of vector spaces endowed with some kind of limit-related structure (e.g. inner product, norm, topology, etc.) and the linear functions defined on these spaces and respecting these structures in a suitable sense.

### Bernard Bolzano

BolzanoBernardus P.J.N. "Bernard" BolzanoBolzano, Bernard
Real analysis began to emerge as an independent subject when Bernard Bolzano introduced the modern definition of continuity in 1816, but Bolzano's work did not become widely known until the 1870s.
To this end, he was one of the earliest mathematicians to begin instilling rigor into mathematical analysis with his three chief mathematical works Beyträge zu einer begründeteren Darstellung der Mathematik (1810), Der binomische Lehrsatz (1816) and Rein analytischer Beweis (1817).