Mathematical analysis

A strange attractor arising from a differential equation. Differential equations are an important area of mathematical analysis with many applications in science and engineering.
Archimedes used the method of exhaustion to compute the area inside a circle by finding the area of regular polygons with more and more sides. This was an early but informal example of a limit, one of the most basic concepts in mathematical analysis.

Branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limits, and related theories, such as differentiation, integration, measure, infinite sequences, series, and analytic functions.

- Mathematical analysis
A strange attractor arising from a differential equation. Differential equations are an important area of mathematical analysis with many applications in science and engineering.

500 related topics

Relevance

Schematic depiction of a function described metaphorically as a "machine" or "black box" that for each input yields a corresponding output

Function (mathematics)

Called the domain of the function and the set Y is called the codomain of the function.

Called the domain of the function and the set Y is called the codomain of the function.

Schematic depiction of a function described metaphorically as a "machine" or "black box" that for each input yields a corresponding output
The red curve is the graph of a function, because any vertical line has exactly one crossing point with the curve.
A function that associates any of the four colored shapes to its color.
The function mapping each year to its US motor vehicle death count, shown as a line chart
The same function, shown as a bar chart
Graph of a linear function
Graph of a polynomial function, here a quadratic function.
Graph of two trigonometric functions: sine and cosine.
Together, the two square roots of all nonnegative real numbers form a single smooth curve.
A composite function g(f(x)) can be visualized as the combination of two "machines".
A simple example of a function composition
Another composition. In this example, {{math|1=(g ∘ f )(c) = #}}.

Typically, this occurs in mathematical analysis, where "a function from X to Y " often refers to a function that may have a proper subset of X as domain.

Archimedes used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under a parabola.

Calculus

Mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

Mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

Archimedes used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under a parabola.
Alhazen, 11th-century Arab mathematician and physicist
Isaac Newton developed the use of calculus in his laws of motion and gravitation.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was the first to state clearly the rules of calculus.
Maria Gaetana Agnesi
The logarithmic spiral of the Nautilus shell is a classical image used to depict the growth and change related to calculus.

In mathematics education, calculus denotes courses of elementary mathematical analysis, which are mainly devoted to the study of functions and limits.

Informally, a measure has the property of being monotone in the sense that if A is a subset of B, the measure of A is less than or equal to the measure of B. Furthermore, the measure of the empty set is required to be 0.

Measure (mathematics)

Generalization and formalization of geometrical measures and other common notions, such as mass and probability of events.

Generalization and formalization of geometrical measures and other common notions, such as mass and probability of events.

Informally, a measure has the property of being monotone in the sense that if A is a subset of B, the measure of A is less than or equal to the measure of B. Furthermore, the measure of the empty set is required to be 0.
Countable additivity of a measure μ: The measure of a countable disjoint union is the same as the sum of all measures of each subset.

Most measures met in practice in analysis (and in many cases also in probability theory) are Radon measures.

3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)

Mathematics

3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)
The distribution of prime numbers is a central point of study in number theory. This Ulam spiral serves to illustrate it, hinting, in particular, at the conditional independence between being prime and being a value of certain quadratic polynomials.
The quadratic formula expresses concisely the solutions of all quadratic equations
Rubik's cube: the study of its possible moves is a concrete application of group theory
The Babylonian mathematical tablet Plimpton 322, dated to 1800 BC.
Archimedes used the method of exhaustion, depicted here, to approximate the value of pi.
The numerals used in the Bakhshali manuscript, dated between the 2nd century BC and the 2nd century AD.
A page from al-Khwārizmī's Algebra
Leonardo Fibonacci, the Italian mathematician who introduced the Hindu–Arabic numeral system invented between the 1st and 4th centuries by Indian mathematicians, to the Western World.
Leonhard Euler created and popularized much of the mathematical notation used today.
Carl Friedrich Gauss, known as the prince of mathematicians
The front side of the Fields Medal
Euler's identity, which American physicist Richard Feynman once called "the most remarkable formula in mathematics".

Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and the spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (calculus and analysis).

Archimedes Thoughtful
by Domenico Fetti (1620)

Archimedes

Approximation of pi; defining and investigating the spiral that now bears his name; and devising a system using exponentiation for expressing very large numbers.

Approximation of pi; defining and investigating the spiral that now bears his name; and devising a system using exponentiation for expressing very large numbers.

Archimedes Thoughtful
by Domenico Fetti (1620)
The Death of Archimedes (1815) by Thomas Degeorge
Cicero Discovering the Tomb of Archimedes (1805) by Benjamin West
The Archimedes' screw can raise water efficiently.
Archimedes may have used mirrors acting collectively as a parabolic reflector to burn ships attacking Syracuse.
Archimedes calculates the side of the 12-gon from that of the hexagon and for each subsequent doubling of the sides of the regular polygon.
A proof that the area of the parabolic segment in the upper figure is equal to 4/3 that of the inscribed triangle in the lower figure from Quadrature of the Parabola.
Frontpage of Archimedes' Opera, in Greek and Latin, edited by David Rivault (1615).
A sphere has 2/3 the volume and surface area of its circumscribing cylinder including its bases.
Ostomachion is a dissection puzzle found in the Archimedes Palimpsest.
In 1906, the Archimedes Palimpsest revealed works by Archimedes thought to have been lost.
The Fields Medal carries a portrait of Archimedes.
Artistic interpretation of Archimedes' mirror used to burn Roman ships.
Painting by Giulio Parigi, c. 1599.
Bronze statue of Archimedes in Berlin

Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying the concept of the infinitely small and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including: the area of a circle; the surface area and volume of a sphere; area of an ellipse; the area under a parabola; the volume of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution; the volume of a segment of a hyperboloid of revolution; and the area of a spiral.

A strange attractor arising from a differential equation. Differential equations are an important area of mathematical analysis with many applications in science and engineering.

Calculus of variations

A strange attractor arising from a differential equation. Differential equations are an important area of mathematical analysis with many applications in science and engineering.

The calculus of variations is a field of mathematical analysis that uses variations, which are small changes in functions

3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)

Limit (mathematics)

Value that a function approaches as the input (or index) approaches some value.

Value that a function approaches as the input (or index) approaches some value.

3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)

Limits are essential to calculus and mathematical analysis, and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals.

Illustration of 3 geometric series with partial sums from 1 to 6 terms. The dashed line represents the limit.

Series (mathematics)

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

In mathematics, a series is, roughly speaking, a description of the operation of adding infinitely many quantities, one after the other, to a given starting quantity.

Illustration of 3 geometric series with partial sums from 1 to 6 terms. The dashed line represents the limit.

The study of series is a major part of calculus and its generalization, mathematical analysis.

The failure of a function to be continuous at a point is quantified by its oscillation.

Continuous function

Function such that a continuous variation of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function.

Function such that a continuous variation of the argument induces a continuous variation of the value of the function.

The failure of a function to be continuous at a point is quantified by its oscillation.
The graph of a cubic function has no jumps or holes. The function is continuous.
For a Lipschitz continuous function, there is a double cone (shown in white) whose vertex can be translated along the graph, so that the graph always remains entirely outside the cone.
A right-continuous function
A left-continuous function

Continuity is one of the core concepts of calculus and mathematical analysis, where arguments and values of functions are real and complex numbers.

Cauchy around 1840. Lithography by Zéphirin Belliard after a painting by Jean Roller.

Augustin-Louis Cauchy

Cauchy around 1840. Lithography by Zéphirin Belliard after a painting by Jean Roller.
Cauchy in later life
The title page of a textbook by Cauchy.
Leçons sur le calcul différentiel, 1829

Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy (, ; ; 21 August 1789 – 23 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics.