Mathematical model

mathematical modelingmodelmathematical modelsmathematical modellingmodelsmathematicalmodelingmodellingdynamic modelmathematically modeled
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.wikipedia
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Statistical model

modelprobabilistic modelstatistical modeling
Mathematical models can take many forms, including dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.
A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of sample data (and similar data from a larger population).

Game theory

gamegame theoristgame theoretic
Mathematical models can take many forms, including dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.
Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers.

Dynamical system

dynamical systemsdynamic systemdynamic systems
Mathematical models can take many forms, including dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.
Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, the flow of water in a pipe, and the number of fish each springtime in a lake.

Governing equation

The governing equations of a mathematical model describe how the values of the unknown variables (i.e. the dependent variables) change when one or more of the known (i.e. independent) variables change.

Chaos theory

chaoticchaoschaotic behavior
This behavior can be studied through the analysis of a chaotic mathematical model, or through analytical techniques such as recurrence plots and Poincaré maps.

Mathematical optimization

optimizationmathematical programmingoptimal
Problems formulated using this technique in the fields of physics may refer to the technique as energy minimization, speaking of the value of the function f as representing the energy of the system being modeled.

Electrical engineering

electrical engineerelectricalElectrical and Electronics Engineering
Mathematical models are used in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, chemistry) and engineering disciplines (such as computer science, electrical engineering), as well as in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology, political science).
Control engineering focuses on the modeling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner.

Finite element method

finite element analysisfinite elementfinite elements
In engineering, physics models are often made by mathematical methods such as finite element analysis.
The finite element method (FEM) is the most largely used method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical models.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Mathematical models are used in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, chemistry) and engineering disciplines (such as computer science, electrical engineering), as well as in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology, political science).
Theorists seek to develop mathematical models that both agree with existing experiments and successfully predict future experimental results, while experimentalists devise and perform experiments to test theoretical predictions and explore new phenomena.

Engineering

engineerengineersengineered
Mathematical models are used in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, chemistry) and engineering disciplines (such as computer science, electrical engineering), as well as in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology, political science). In engineering, physics models are often made by mathematical methods such as finite element analysis.
Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem often allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential solutions.

Simulation

simulatorsimulatesimulations
Similarly, in control of a system, engineers can try out different control approaches in simulations.
Traditionally, the formal modeling of systems has been via a mathematical model, which attempts to find analytical solutions enabling the prediction of the behaviour of the system from a set of parameters and initial conditions.

Continuous modelling

continuous model
Continuous modelling is the mathematical practice of applying a model to continuous data (data which has a potentially infinite number, and divisibility, of attributes).

Input–output model

input-output modelinput-output analysisinput-output
For example, economists often apply linear algebra when using input-output models.
In economics, an input–output model is a quantitative economic model that represents the interdependencies between different sectors of a national economy or different regional economies.

Linear algebra

linearlinear algebraiclinear-algebraic
For example, economists often apply linear algebra when using input-output models.
Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and engineering areas, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and efficiently computing with such models.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
Mathematical models are used in the natural sciences (such as physics, biology, earth science, chemistry) and engineering disciplines (such as computer science, electrical engineering), as well as in the social sciences (such as economics, psychology, sociology, political science).
A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system.

Nonlinear system identification

Alternatively the NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Average model with eXogenous inputs) algorithms which were developed as part of nonlinear system identification can be used to select the model terms, determine the model structure, and estimate the unknown parameters in the presence of correlated and nonlinear noise.
System identification is a method of identifying or measuring the mathematical model of a system from measurements of the system inputs and outputs.

Machine learning

machine-learninglearningstatistical learning
If the modeling is done by an artificial neural network or other machine learning, the optimization of parameters is called training, while the optimization of model hyperparameters is called tuning and often uses cross-validation.
Machine learning algorithms build a mathematical model based on sample data, known as "training data", in order to make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to perform the task.

Economic model

modelmodelseconomic models
In statistics, decision theory, and some economic models, a loss function plays a similar role.
The economic model is a simplified, often mathematical, framework designed to illustrate complex processes.

Parameter

parametersparametricargument
Exogenous variables are sometimes known as parameters or constants.
In the context of a mathematical model, such as a probability distribution, the distinction between variables and parameters was described by Bard as follows:

Thermodynamic cycle

Cyclic processcyclethermodynamic power cycle
Thermodynamic heat pump cycles are the models for household heat pumps and refrigerators.

Differential equation

differential equationsdifferentialsecond-order differential equation
Mathematical models can take many forms, including dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.
In biology and economics, differential equations are used to model the behavior of complex systems.

Black box

black-boxBlack box theoryBlack box analysis
Mathematical modeling problems are often classified into black box or white box models, according to how much a priori information on the system is available.
The modeling process is the construction of a predictive mathematical model, using existing historic data (observation table).

Computer simulation

computer modelsimulationcomputer modeling
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

Mathematical finance

financial mathematicsquantitative financequantitative trading
Generally, mathematical finance will derive and extend the mathematical or numerical models without necessarily establishing a link to financial theory, taking observed market prices as input.

Mathematical psychology

mathematical psychologistbehavioral sciencesmathematical
Mathematical psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, thought, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior.