# Mathematics

**mathematicalmathmathematicianmathsArithmeticmathematicmathematicallymathematiciansCountingMathematical Sciences**

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.wikipedia

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### Calculus

**infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus**

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus) is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

### Conjecture

**conjecturalconjecturesconjectured**

Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof.

In mathematics, a conjecture is a conclusion or proposition based on incomplete information, for which no proof has been found.

### Mathematical structure

**structurestructuresmathematical structures**

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

In mathematics, a structure on a set is an additional mathematical object that, in some manner, attaches (or relates) to that set to endow it with some additional meaning or significance.

### Abstraction (mathematics)

**abstractabstractionAbstraction in mathematics**

Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects.

Abstraction in mathematics is the process of extracting the underlying essence of a mathematical concept, removing any dependence on real world objects with which it might originally have been connected, and generalizing it so that it has wider applications or matching among other abstract descriptions of equivalent phenomena.

### History of mathematics

**historian of mathematicsmathematicshistory**

Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist.

The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.

### Logic

**logicianlogicallogics**

Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements.

Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy (since ancient times) and mathematics (since the mid-19th century), and recently logic has been studied in computer science, linguistics, psychology, and other fields.

### Motion (physics)

**motionmovementlocomotion**

Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects.

Motion is mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, time, and speed.

### Greek mathematics

**Greek mathematicianGreekancient Greek mathematicians**

Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements.

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts and advances written in Greek, developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

### Euclid's Elements

**ElementsEuclid's ''ElementsEuclid**

Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements.

The Elements ( Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC. It is a collection of definitions, postulates, propositions (theorems and constructions), and mathematical proofs of the propositions.

### Pattern

**patternsgeometric patternsgeometric pattern**

Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof.

Conversely, abstract patterns in science, mathematics, or language may be observable only by analysis.

### Quantity

**quantitiesquantitativeamount**

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

Quantity is among the basic classes of things along with quality, substance, change, and relation.

### Foundations of mathematics

**foundation of mathematicsfoundationsfoundational**

Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions.

Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.

### David Hilbert

**HilbertHilbert, DavidD. Hilbert**

Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions.

A famous example of his leadership in mathematics is his 1900 presentation of a collection of problems that set the course for much of the mathematical research of the 20th century.

### Axiom

**axiomspostulateaxiomatic**

Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions.

As used in mathematics, the term axiom is used in two related but distinguishable senses: "logical axioms" and "non-logical axioms".

### Pure mathematics

**pureabstract mathematicspure mathematician**

Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind.

Pure mathematics is the study of mathematical concepts independently of any application outside mathematics.

### Definition

**definitionsdefinedefined**

In mathematics, a definition is used to give a precise meaning to a new term, instead of describing a pre-existing term.

### Geometry

**geometricgeometricalgeometries**

Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.

Geometry (from the ; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

### Astronomy

**astronomicalastronomerastronomers**

Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.

It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution.

### Euclid

**Euclid of AlexandriaGreek Mathematicianancient Greek mathematician**

Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements.

His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century.

### Algebra

**algebraicAlgebra IAlgebra 1**

Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.

Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts" ) is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

### Pythagorean theorem

**Pythagoras' theoremPythagoras47th Problem**

The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

### Arithmetic

**arithmetic operationsarithmeticsarithmetic operation**

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number" and τική [τέχνη], tiké [téchne], "art") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

### Mesopotamia

**Mesopotamianancient MesopotamiaIraq**

The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture".

### Parabola

**parabolicparabolic curveparabolic arc**

He developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve that can be moved for becoming the graph of a quadratic function (for example,

### Solid of revolution

**solids of revolutionbodies of revolutionaxis of revolution**

He developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.

In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis of revolution) that lies on the same plane.