# Mathematics and Science

Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes.

- ScienceMathematics is widely used in science for modeling phenomena.

- Mathematics9 related topics

## Physics

Natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force.

Natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force.

Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, with its main goal being to understand how the universe behaves.

Over much of the past two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right.

## Axiom

Statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

Statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

As used in mathematics, the term axiom is used in two related but distinguishable senses: "logical axioms" and "non-logical axioms".

The ancient Greeks considered geometry as just one of several sciences, and held the theorems of geometry on par with scientific facts.

## Calculus

Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

Today, calculus has widespread uses in science, engineering, and social science.

## Engineering

Use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings.

Use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings.

Engineers use their knowledge of science, mathematics, logic, economics, and appropriate experience or tacit knowledge to find suitable solutions to a particular problem.

## Natural science

Natural science is one of the branches of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

As empirical sciences, natural sciences use tools from the formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature".

## Logic

Study of correct reasoning or good arguments.

Study of correct reasoning or good arguments.

Logic is studied in and applied to various fields, such as philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics.

Ampliative reasoning is of central importance since a lot of the arguments found in everyday discourse and the sciences are ampliative.

## Conjecture

In mathematics, a conjecture is a conclusion or a proposition that is proffered on a tentative basis without proof.

Conjecture is related to hypothesis, which in science refers to a testable conjecture.

## Statistics

Discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.

Discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.

Statistics is a mathematical body of science that pertains to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data, or as a branch of mathematics.

Lydia Denworth, "A Significant Problem: Standard scientific methods are under fire. Will anything change?", Scientific American, vol. 321, no. 4 (October 2019), pp. 62–67. "The use of p values for nearly a century [since 1925] to determine statistical significance of experimental results has contributed to an illusion of certainty and [to] reproducibility crises in many scientific fields. There is growing determination to reform statistical analysis... Some [researchers] suggest changing statistical methods, whereas others would do away with a threshold for defining "significant" results." (p. 63.)

## Knowledge

Familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts , skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (acquaintance knowledge), often contributing to understanding.

Familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts , skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (acquaintance knowledge), often contributing to understanding.

Science tries to acquire knowledge using the scientific method, which is based on repeatable experimentation, observation, and measurement.

Some of the abilities responsible for know-how may also involve certain forms of knowledge-that, as in knowing how to prove a mathematical theorem.