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Patronymic

patronymibnbin
It is the female equivalent of a patronymic.
A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic.

Personal name

birth namefull namepersonal names
A matronymic is a personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor.
Some cultures, including Western ones, also add (or once added) patronymics or matronymics.

Posthumous birth

posthumous sonposthumousposthumously
For instance, it was traditional during the Middle Ages for children whose fathers died before their births to use a matronym, and it was not unheard of for children to be given a matronym if the father's name was foreign, difficult to pronounce, or had an unfortunate meaning.
In the Middle Ages, it was traditional for posthumous children born in England to be given a matronymic surname instead of a patronymic one.

Iceland

🇮🇸IcelandicISL
Some Icelandic people, like Heiðar Helguson, have matronyms.
Rather than using family names, as is the usual custom in most Western nations, Icelanders carry patronymic or matronymic surnames, patronyms being far more commonly practiced.

Zeitlin

Specifically, in East European Jewish society, there appeared various matronymic family names such as Rivlin (from Rivka/Rebecca), Sorkin (from Sarah), Zeitlin (from Zeitl), Rochlin (from Rachel), Feiglin (from Feige), Dworkin (from Dvora) and others.
Zeitlin is a matronymic Jewish surname.

Maiden and married names

néemaiden namemarried name
Filipino names legally have the maiden name of the child's mother as a middle name as opposed to Anglo-American use of secondary or tertiary given names.
Matronymic

Given name

néefirst name
A matronymic is a personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor.

Patronymic surname

patronymicpatronympatriname
Around the world, matronymic surnames are far less common than patronymic surnames.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
The word matronymic is first attested in English in 1794 and originates in the Greek μήτηρ mētēr "mother" ( GEN μητρός mētros whence the combining form μητρo- mētro-), ὄνυμα onyma, a variant form of ὄνομα onoma "name", and the suffix -ικός -ikos, which was originally used to form adjectives with the sense "pertaining to" (thus "pertaining to the mother's name").

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
The word matronymic is first attested in English in 1794 and originates in the Greek μήτηρ mētēr "mother" ( GEN μητρός mētros whence the combining form μητρo- mētro-), ὄνυμα onyma, a variant form of ὄνομα onoma "name", and the suffix -ικός -ikos, which was originally used to form adjectives with the sense "pertaining to" (thus "pertaining to the mother's name").

Classical compound

combining formscombining formneoclassical compound
The word matronymic is first attested in English in 1794 and originates in the Greek μήτηρ mētēr "mother" ( GEN μητρός mētros whence the combining form μητρo- mētro-), ὄνυμα onyma, a variant form of ὄνομα onoma "name", and the suffix -ικός -ikos, which was originally used to form adjectives with the sense "pertaining to" (thus "pertaining to the mother's name").

Oxford English Dictionary

OEDOxfordOxford English Dictionary (OED)
Whereas the Oxford English Dictionary records an English noun patronym in free variation with the noun patronymic, it does not, however, record a corresponding noun matronym.

Free variation

freely variesfree variantsalternate forms
Whereas the Oxford English Dictionary records an English noun patronym in free variation with the noun patronymic, it does not, however, record a corresponding noun matronym.

Bunt (community)

BuntBuntsBunt community
The matrilineal communities in South and North-East India, like the Bunts and Khasi, have family names which are inherited from their mother.

Minangkabau people

MinangkabauMinangMinangkabaus
The Minangkabau of Indonesia are the largest group of people who use this naming system.

Indonesia

🇮🇩IndonesianRepublic of Indonesia
The Minangkabau of Indonesia are the largest group of people who use this naming system.

Enggano Island

EngganoEnggano Island, Indonesia
People of Enggano Island also use a matronymic system.

Filipino name

Filipino-Chinese surnameFilFilipinized name
Filipino names legally have the maiden name of the child's mother as a middle name as opposed to Anglo-American use of secondary or tertiary given names.

Middle name

middlesecond namemiddle initial
Filipino names legally have the maiden name of the child's mother as a middle name as opposed to Anglo-American use of secondary or tertiary given names.

Single parent

single mothersingle motherssingle father
Filipino children born to unwed mothers, if not claimed by the father nor adopted by anyone else, automatically bear their mother's maiden name and sometimes middle name.

Vietnamese name

given nameVietnameseVietnamese surname
Some Vietnamese names also function this way, as less of a "tradition" than a style or trend, in which the mother's maiden name is the child's middle name.

Fitz

There are even instances where royal houses used matronymics to strengthen claims to the English throne – for example, Princess Matilda's eldest son was known as Henry FitzEmpress (-fitz meaning "son of" from Latin filius). Common English matronyms include Beaton, Custer, Tiffany, Parnell, Hilliard, Marriott, Ibbetson, Babbs, and Megson.

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
Family names derived from matronyms are found in France, especially in Normandy: Catherine, Marie, Jeanne, Adeline.

Normandy

NormanNormandieNormandy, France
Family names derived from matronyms are found in France, especially in Normandy: Catherine, Marie, Jeanne, Adeline.

Duchy of Normandy

NormandyNormancounty of Rouen
In medieval Normandy (Duchy of Normandy), a matronym might be used when the mother was of greater prominence than the father or the basis for a claim of inheritance, such as in the cases of Henry FitzEmpress and Robert FitzWimarc.