Matter

corporealsubstancematerialordinary matterhulēmaterial substanceatomic mattercorporealityphysical plane matteranti-matter
In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.wikipedia
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Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, "matter" generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume. Leptons (the most famous being the electron), and quarks (of which baryons, such as protons and neutrons, are made) combine to form atoms, which in turn form molecules.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that constitutes a chemical element.

State of matter

states of matterstatephysical state
Matter exists in various states (also known as phases).
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist.

List of particles

composite particlecompositehypothetical particle
All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, and in everyday as well as scientific usage, "matter" generally includes atoms and anything made up of them, and any particles (or combination of particles) that act as if they have both rest mass and volume.
Fermions are the basic building blocks of all matter.

Photon

photonslight quantaincident photon
However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.
The benefit of the photon model is that it accounts for the frequency dependence of light's energy, and explains the ability of matter and electromagnetic radiation to be in thermal equilibrium.

Particle physics

high energy physicsparticle physicisthigh-energy physics
In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent "size" or "volume" in any everyday sense of the word.
Particle physics (also known as high energy physics) is a branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

Quark

quarksantiquarkantiquarks
Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some "point particles" known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

Elementary particle

elementary particlesparticleparticles
In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent "size" or "volume" in any everyday sense of the word.
Ordinary matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be elementary particles—atom meaning "unable to cut" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy.

Quantum mechanics

quantum physicsquantum mechanicalquantum theory
However this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.
Around 1900–1910, the atomic theory but not the corpuscular theory of light first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
By contrast, mass is not a substance but rather a quantitative property of matter and other substances or systems; various types of mass are defined within physics – including but not limited to rest mass, inertial mass, relativistic mass, mass–energy. However, in both physics and chemistry, matter exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties, the so-called wave–particle duality.
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis 'nature') is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and that studies the related entities of energy and force.

Light

visible lightvisiblelight source
However it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound.
The effective velocity of light in various transparent substances containing ordinary matter, is less than in vacuum.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry
However, in both physics and chemistry, matter exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties, the so-called wave–particle duality.
Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, atoms, molecules, substances, metals, crystals and other aggregates of matter.

Standard Model

standard model of particle physicsThe Standard ModelStandard Model of Physics
In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent "size" or "volume" in any everyday sense of the word.
At present, matter and energy are best understood in terms of the kinematics and interactions of elementary particles.

Up quark

upup antiquarkup quarks
The first generation is the up and down quarks, the electron and the electron neutrino; the second includes the charm and strange quarks, the muon and the muon neutrino; the third generation consists of the top and bottom quarks and the tau and tau neutrino.
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

Down quark

downdown antiquarkdown quarks
The first generation is the up and down quarks, the electron and the electron neutrino; the second includes the charm and strange quarks, the muon and the muon neutrino; the third generation consists of the top and bottom quarks and the tau and tau neutrino.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

Antimatter

anti-matterantiheliumanti
This particular definition leads to matter being defined to include anything made of these antimatter particles as well as the ordinary quark and lepton, and thus also anything made of mesons, which are unstable particles made up of a quark and an antiquark.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as matter which is composed of the antiparticles (or "partners") of the corresponding particles of 'ordinary' matter (koinomatter).

Electric charge

chargeelectrical chargecharged
They carry an electric charge of −1⁄3 e (down-type quarks) or +2⁄3 e (up-type quarks).
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

General relativity

general theory of relativitygeneral relativity theoryrelativity
This view is commonly held in fields that deal with general relativity such as cosmology.
In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present.

Point particle

point chargepoint massparticle
Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some "point particles" known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space.
Point mass (pointlike mass) is the concept, for example in classical physics, of a physical object (typically matter) that has nonzero mass, and yet explicitly and specifically is (or is being thought of or modeled as) infinitesimal (infinitely small) in its volume or linear dimensions.

Stress–energy tensor

energy–momentum tensorenergy-momentum tensorstress-energy tensor
Thus, in relativity usually a more general view is that it is not the sum of rest masses, but the energy–momentum tensor that quantifies the amount of matter.
It is an attribute of matter, radiation, and non-gravitational force fields.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of matter.
Materials science is a relatively new, interdisciplinary field which deals with the study of matter and its properties; as well as the discovery and design of new materials.

Dark energy

energyvacuum energycauses an acceleration in the expansion
This part of the universe does not include dark energy, dark matter, black holes or various forms of degenerate matter, such as compose white dwarf stars and neutron stars.
The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 27% and 5%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount.

Black hole

black holesblack-holeblack hole physics
This part of the universe does not include dark energy, dark matter, black holes or various forms of degenerate matter, such as compose white dwarf stars and neutron stars.
The presence of a black hole can be inferred through its interaction with other matter and with electromagnetic radiation such as visible light.

Fermion

fermionsFermionichalf-integer spin
Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some "point particles" known as fermions (quarks, leptons), and many composites and atoms, are effectively forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions; this creates the property of matter which appears to us as matter taking up space.
Fermions are usually associated with matter, whereas bosons are generally force carrier particles, although in the current state of particle physics the distinction between the two concepts is unclear.

Baryon

baryonic matterbaryonsbaryonic
Leptons (the most famous being the electron), and quarks (of which baryons, such as protons and neutrons, are made) combine to form atoms, which in turn form molecules.
These particles make up most of the mass of the visible matter in the universe, as well as forming the components of the nucleus of every atom.

Thermodynamics

thermodynamicthermodynamicallyclassical thermodynamics
These phenomena are called phase transitions, and are studied in the field of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with heat and temperature, and their relation to energy, work, radiation, and properties of matter.