Mau Mau Uprising

Mau MauMau Mau rebellionKenyaMau Mau insurgencyMau Mau rebelsMau-MaumaumauBritish Kenyaeight-year conflict in KenyaEmergency
The Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1960), also known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, and the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony (1920–1963).wikipedia
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Dedan Kimathi

Dedan Kimathi Waciuri
The capture of rebel leader, Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi, on 21 October 1956, signalled the defeat of the Mau Mau, however, the rebellion survived until after Kenya's independence from Britain, driven mainly by the Meru units led by Field Marshal Musa Mwariama and General Baimungi.
Dedan Kimathi Waciuri (31 October 1920 – 18 February 1957), born Kimathi wa Waciuri, was the senior most military and spiritual leader during the Mau Mau Uprising.

Musa Mwariama

Field Marshal Musa Mwariama
The capture of rebel leader, Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi, on 21 October 1956, signalled the defeat of the Mau Mau, however, the rebellion survived until after Kenya's independence from Britain, driven mainly by the Meru units led by Field Marshal Musa Mwariama and General Baimungi.
Field Marshal Musa Mwariama,EBS (1928–1989) was a Kenyan revolutionary leader of the Mau Mau in Meru and the highest-ranking Mau Mau leader who survived the war without being killed or captured.

Kikuyu people

KikuyuGikuyuKikuyus
Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru people and Embu people, the Mau Mau also comprised units of Kamba and Maasai peoples who fought against the white European colonist-settlers in Kenya, the British Army, and the local Kenya Regiment (British colonists, local auxiliary militia, and pro–British Kikuyu people).
By 1952, under Field Marshal Dedan Kimathi, the Kenya Land and Freedom Army (Mau Mau) launched a full military conflict on the British military, settlers and their native allies.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
The nature of fighting in Kenya led Winston Churchill to express concern in 1908 about how it would look if word got out:
Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951 election|1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, and a UK-backed Iranian coup.

British Army

ArmyBritishBritish troops
Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru people and Embu people, the Mau Mau also comprised units of Kamba and Maasai peoples who fought against the white European colonist-settlers in Kenya, the British Army, and the local Kenya Regiment (British colonists, local auxiliary militia, and pro–British Kikuyu people).
Despite the decline of the British Empire, the army was engaged in Aden, Indonesia, Cyprus, Kenya and Malaya.

Nairobi

Nairobi, KenyaUmoja Nairobi-based
As a result of the situation in the highlands and growing job opportunities in the cities, thousands of Kikuyu migrated into cities in search of work, contributing to the doubling of Nairobi's population between 1938 and 1952.
After the end of World War II, this friction developed into the Mau Mau rebellion.

Muthoni Kirima

Field Marshal Muthoni.
An unknown number also fought in the war, with the most high-ranking being Field Marshal Muthoni.
Muthoni wa Kirima (born 1931) is a retired top-ranking female fighter in the Kenya Land and Freedom Army of the Mau Mau Uprising in the 1950s.

Muranga County

Murang'aMurangaMurang'a County
The Kikuyu, who lived in the Kiambu, Nyeri and Murang'a areas of what became Central Province, were one of the ethnic groups most affected by the colonial government's land expropriation and European settlement; by 1933, they had had over 109.5 sqmi of their potentially highly valuable land alienated.
One of the main highlights of Murang'a's history, however, is that the Mau Mau uprising that was led by the Agikuyu community who consider Murang'a their ancestral origin.

Jomo Kenyatta

KenyattaMzee Jomo KenyattaPresident Kenyatta
Early the next morning, Operation Jock Scott was launched: the British carried out a mass-arrest of Jomo Kenyatta and 180 other alleged Mau Mau leaders within Nairobi.
In 1952, he was among the Kapenguria Six arrested and charged with masterminding the anti-colonial Mau Mau Uprising.

Caroline Elkins

Caroline Elkins' 2005 study, Imperial Reckoning, has met similar criticism, as well as being criticised for sensationalism.
It was also the basis for successful claims by former Mau Mau detainees against the British government for crimes committed in the detention camps of Kenya in the 1950s.

Avro Lincoln

LincolnLincolnsAvro Lincoln B.2
Contrary to that which is sometimes claimed, Lancaster bombers were not used during the Emergency, though Lincolns were.
RAF squadrons equipped with the type were used as part of Britain's action against guerrilla fighters during the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya; the RAF and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) operated the Lincoln during the Malayan Emergency.

Evelyn Baring, 1st Baron Howick of Glendale

Evelyn BaringSir Evelyn Baring Sir '''Evelyn Baring
On 30 September 1952, Evelyn Baring arrived in Kenya to permanently take over from Potter; Baring was given no warning by Mitchell or the Colonial Office about the gathering maelstrom into which he was stepping.
Baring played an integral role in the destruction of the Kikuyu people during the brutal suppression of the Mau Mau uprising.

White Highlands

HighlandsKenyaKenya highlands
Through a series of expropriations, the government seized about 7000000 acre of land, most of it in the fertile hilly regions of Central and Rift Valley Provinces, later known as the White Highlands due to the exclusively European-owned farmland there.
This confusion laid the seeds for future emnity between the Kikuyu and European settlers, culminating in the Mau Mau Rebellion.

Kapenguria Six

During the first stage, the British tried to decapitate the movement by declaring a State of Emergency before arresting 180 alleged Mau Mau leaders (see Operation Jock Scott below) and subjecting six of them to a show trial (the Kapenguria Six); the second stage began in earnest in 1954, when they undertook a series of major economic, military and penal initiatives.
the previous Governor, proscribed the new organisation – now called Mau Mau – in 1950.

Kenya Regiment

Dominated by the Kikuyu people, Meru people and Embu people, the Mau Mau also comprised units of Kamba and Maasai peoples who fought against the white European colonist-settlers in Kenya, the British Army, and the local Kenya Regiment (British colonists, local auxiliary militia, and pro–British Kikuyu people).
The regiment was recalled in 1950 and participated in the repression of the Mau Mau uprising (1952-56).

Kenya

🇰🇪KenyanKEN
The Hola massacre was an incident during the conflict in Kenya against British colonial rule at a colonial detention camp in Hola, Kenya.
Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution, which began in 1952, and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1963.

Louis Leakey

LouisL. S. B. LeakeyDr. Louis Leakey
The official British explanation of the revolt did not include the insights of agrarian and agricultural experts, of economists and historians, or even of Europeans who had spent a long period living amongst the Kikuyu such as Louis Leakey.
In 1949 the Kikuyu formed a secret society, the Mau Mau, which attacked settlers and especially loyalist Kikuyu.

Hola massacre

Hola Camp
The Hola massacre was an incident during the conflict in Kenya against British colonial rule at a colonial detention camp in Hola, Kenya.
The Hola massacre is an event that took place during the Mau Mau Uprising against British colonial rule at a colonial detention camp in Hola, Kenya.

Villagization

protected villagesvillagisation
The second stage had three main planks: a large military-sweep of Nairobi leading to the internment of tens of thousands of the city's suspected Mau Mau members and sympathisers (see Operation Anvil below); the enacting of major agrarian reform (the Swynnerton Plan); and the institution of a vast villagisation programme for more than a million rural Kikuyu (see below).
The British colonial government in Kenya used a similar approach to exert control over Kikuyu tribespeople during the Mau Mau Uprising, which in turn inspired the "Manyatta" strategy of independent Kenya against ethnic Somalis during the Shifta War.

Central Province (Kenya)

Central ProvinceCentralCentral Kenya
Through a series of expropriations, the government seized about 7000000 acre of land, most of it in the fertile hilly regions of Central and Rift Valley Provinces, later known as the White Highlands due to the exclusively European-owned farmland there.
This tension culminated in the 1950s with the Mau Mau rebellion; it saw the region placed under a state of emergency and the arrest of many prominent political leaders.

Kikuyu Home Guard

Home GuardKikuyu Guard
The people executed belonged to the Kikuyu Home Guard — a loyalist militia recruited by the British to fight the guerrillas.
It was formed in response to insurgent attacks during the Mau Mau Uprising.

Kenya African Union

KANUKenya African Study UnionKAU
KASU changed its name to the Kenya African Union (KAU) in 1946.
The guerilla warfare tactics of the Land and Freedom Army eventually led to Kikuyus Kambas, Kalenjins and others being labeled "Mau Mau" by the British.

Josiah Mwangi Kariuki

J.M. KariukiJM Kariuki
Perhaps the most famous compound leader was Josiah Mwangi Kariuki.
Shortly after that, Kenya was placed under state of emergency by the new Governor, Sir Evelyn Baring, and Kariuki joined the Mau Mau uprising.

George Erskine

Sir George ErskineGeneral ErskineBobby
Some settlers felt that "[a] good sound system of compulsory labour would do more to raise the nigger in five years than all the millions that have been sunk in missionary efforts for the last fifty", and its representatives were so keen on aggressive action that George Erskine referred to them as "the White Mau Mau".
In 1953 he was appointed GOC-in-Chief, East Africa Command where he was responsible for managing the response to the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya and led Operation Anvil in Nairobi in April 1954.

Kurito ole Kisio

Kurito ole Kisio
Kurito ole Kisio was a Mau Mau general who was killed in Narok, Kenya, in 1954.