Mauna Loa

MokuaweoweoLoaHawaiian volcanoMauna Loa VolcanoMauna Loa, Hawaiithe volcano
Mauna Loa ( or ; Hawaiian: ; Long Mountain ) is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean.wikipedia
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Mauna Kea

Mauna Kea, HawaiiMauna Kea (Hawai'i)a 13,796' dormant volcano
It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes, with a volume estimated at approximately 18000 mi3, although its peak is about 125 ft lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea. Mauna Loa has complex interactions with its neighbors, Hualālai to the west, Mauna Kea to the north, and particularly Kīlauea to the east.
The peak is about 38 m higher than Mauna Loa, its more massive neighbor.

Hawaii

State of HawaiiHawaiʻiHI
Mauna Loa ( or ; Hawaiian: ; Long Mountain ) is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean. At 1 million to 700,000 years of age, Mauna Loa is the second youngest of the five volcanoes on the island, making it the third youngest volcano in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia.
Snow, not usually associated with the tropics, falls at 4200 m on Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on Hawaii Island in some winter months.

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

Jaggar MuseumThomas A. Jaggar MuseumUSGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Mauna Loa has been monitored intensively by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 1912.
The observatory monitored four active Hawaiian volcanoes: Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, and Haleakalā.

Mauna Loa Solar Observatory

Observations of the atmosphere are undertaken at the Mauna Loa Observatory, and of the Sun at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, both located near the mountain's summit.
Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) is a solar observatory located on the slopes of Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaii.

Kīlauea

KilaueaKilauea VolcanoKīlauea volcano
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park covers the summit and the southeastern flank of the volcano, and also incorporates Kīlauea, a separate volcano. The oldest volcano on the island, Kohala, is more than a million years old, and Kīlauea, the youngest, is believed to be between 300,000 and 600,000 years of age. Mauna Loa has complex interactions with its neighbors, Hualālai to the west, Mauna Kea to the north, and particularly Kīlauea to the east.
Because it lacks topographic prominence and its activities historically coincided with those of Mauna Loa, Kīlauea was once thought to be a satellite of its much larger neighbor.

Mauna Loa Observatory

Mauna LoaMauna Loa Atmospheric ObservatoryMauna Loa Obs.
Observations of the atmosphere are undertaken at the Mauna Loa Observatory, and of the Sun at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, both located near the mountain's summit.
The Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an atmospheric baseline station on Mauna Loa, on the island of Hawaii, located in the U.S. state of Hawaii.

Shield volcano

shield volcanoesshieldlava shield
It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes, with a volume estimated at approximately 18000 mi3, although its peak is about 125 ft lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea. At 1 million to 700,000 years of age, Mauna Loa is the second youngest of the five volcanoes on the island, making it the third youngest volcano in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia.
With the exclusion of flood basalts, mature shields are the largest volcanic features on Earth: the summit of the largest subaerial volcano in the world, Mauna Loa, lies 4169 m above sea level, and the volcano, over 60 mi wide at its base, is estimated to contain about 80000 km3 of basalt.

1984 eruption of Mauna Loa

most recent in 19841984most recent eruption
Mauna Loa's most recent eruption occurred from March 24 to April 15, 1984.
It ended a 9-year period of quiescence at the volcano and continued for 22 days, during which time lava flows and lava fountains issued from the summit caldera and fissures along the northeast and southwest rift zones.

Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park

Hawaii Volcanoes National ParkHawaiian volcanoesHawai'i Volcanoes National Park
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park covers the summit and the southeastern flank of the volcano, and also incorporates Kīlauea, a separate volcano.
The park encompasses two active volcanoes: Kīlauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, and Mauna Loa, the world's most massive shield volcano.

Lōʻihi Seamount

Loihi SeamountLoihiLōihi
Lōʻihi Seamount on the island's flank is even younger, but has yet to breach the surface of the Pacific Ocean.
This seamount is on the flank of Mauna Loa, the largest shield volcano on Earth.

Evolution of Hawaiian volcanoes

shield stagerejuvenatedrejuvenated stage
Following the pattern of Hawaiian volcano formation, Mauna Loa would have started as a submarine volcano, gradually building itself up through underwater eruptions of alkali basalt before emerging from the sea through a series of surtseyan eruptions about 400,000 years ago.
The largest, Mauna Loa, is 4169 m high.

List of volcanoes in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain

Hawaiian volcanoesList of volcanoes in Hawaiisecond
At 1 million to 700,000 years of age, Mauna Loa is the second youngest of the five volcanoes on the island, making it the third youngest volcano in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia.
The island of Hawaii is comprised by five volcanoes, of which two (Kilauea and Mauna Loa) are still active.

Kohala (mountain)

KohalaKohala MountainKohala Mountains
The oldest volcano on the island, Kohala, is more than a million years old, and Kīlauea, the youngest, is believed to be between 300,000 and 600,000 years of age.
It is difficult to determine the original size and shape of the volcano, as the southeast flank has been buried by volcanic lava flows from nearby Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa.

Hawaii (island)

Hawaiiisland of HawaiiBig Island
Mauna Loa ( or ; Hawaiian: ; Long Mountain ) is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean.

Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesvolcanic igneous activity
It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes, with a volume estimated at approximately 18000 mi3, although its peak is about 125 ft lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea.

Tamu Massif

The largest subaerial volcano in both mass and volume, Mauna Loa has historically been considered the largest volcano on Earth, dwarfed only by Tamu Massif.
If confirmed, the suggestion that it could be a single volcano would make the Tamu Massif the largest known volcano on Earth, dwarfing the current record-holder, Mauna Loa on the Hawaiian Islands.

Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain

Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chainEmperor SeamountsHawaiian – Emperor seamount chain
At 1 million to 700,000 years of age, Mauna Loa is the second youngest of the five volcanoes on the island, making it the third youngest volcano in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain, a chain of shield volcanoes and seamounts extending from Hawaii to the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench in Russia. The Hawaii island volcanoes are the most recent evidence of this process that, over 70 million years, has created the 3700 mi-long Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain.
The island of Hawaii is composed of five volcanoes, of which three (Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Hualalai) are still active.

Hilo, Hawaii

HiloHilo, HIHilo, Hawai'i
No recent eruptions of the volcano have caused fatalities, but eruptions in 1926 and 1950 destroyed villages, and the city of Hilo is partly built on lava flows from the late 19th century.
The town overlooks Hilo Bay, at the base of two shield volcanoes, Mauna Loa, an active volcano, and Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano.

Hawaiian eruption

Hawaiianfire fountainingHawaiian eruptions
Lava eruptions from Mauna Loa are silica-poor and very fluid, and they tend to be non-explosive.
Hawaiian eruptions may occur along fissure vents, such as during the eruption of Mauna Loa in 1950, or at a central vent, such as during the 1959 eruption in Kīlauea Iki Crater, which created a lava fountain 580 meters (1,900 ft) high and formed a 38-meter cone named Puu Puai.

Hualālai

HualalaiMount HualalaiHualalai Mountain
Mauna Loa has complex interactions with its neighbors, Hualālai to the west, Mauna Kea to the north, and particularly Kīlauea to the east.
It is the westernmost, third-youngest and the third-most active of the five volcanoes that form the island of Hawaii, following Kīlauea and the much larger Mauna Loa.

Hawaii hotspot

Hawaiian hotspotHawaiiHawaiian volcanoes
The volcano's magma comes from the Hawaii hotspot, which has been responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian island chain over tens of millions of years.
Just reaching the summits proved daunting: Menzies took three attempts to ascend Mauna Loa, and Douglas died on the slopes of Mauna Kea.

Rift zone

rift zonesrift eruptions
Mauna Loa's summit is also the focal point for its two prominent rift zones, marked on the surface by well-preserved, relatively recent lava flows (easily seen in satellite imagery) and linearly arranged fracture lines intersected by cinder and splatter cones.
Perhaps the best example of this is Mauna Loa, which in Hawaiian means "long mountain", and which features two very well defined rift zones extending tens of kilometers outward from the central vent.

Hilina Slump

Hilina fault system
Mauna Loa is slumping eastward along its southwestern rift zone, leveraging its mass into Kīlauea and driving the latter eastward at a rate of about 10 cm per year; the interaction between the two volcanoes in this manner has generated a number of large earthquakes in the past, and has resulted in a significant area of debris off of Kīlauea's seaward flank known as the Hilina Slump.
The largest, at the trailing edge of the island, is Mauna Loa Volcano, and on its seaward flank is the younger Kīlauea, with the still submerged Lōʻihi Seamount just off-shore.

Kiholo bay

Kīholo Bay
1859 marked the largest of the three historical flows that have been centered on Mauna Loa's northwestern flank, producing a long lava flow that reached the ocean on Hawaii island's west coast, north of Kīholo Bay.
These walls were destroyed in 1859 when an eruption from Mauna Loa, located 48 km away, caused the pond to be submerged in a flow of lava.

1868 Hawaii earthquake

18681868 earthquake1868 Hawaii earthquake and tsunami
An eruption in 1868 occurred alongside the enormous 1868 Hawaii earthquake, a magnitude eight event that claimed 77 lives and remains the largest earthquake ever to hit the island.
The two active volcanoes on the Big Island are Kīlauea and Mauna Loa with a newer submarine volcano forming the Loihi Seamount to the southeast of the island.