Maurice's Balkan campaigns

Balkan CampaigncampaignsBalkan CampaignsBalkans602an expeditionBalkancampaigned extensivelycampaigning in the Balkanskept the Avars and Slavs at bay
Maurice's Balkan campaigns were a series of military expeditions conducted by Eastern Roman Emperor Maurice (reigned 582–602) in an attempt to defend the Balkan provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Avars and the Slavs.wikipedia
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Maurice (emperor)

MauriceEmperor MauriceMaurikios
Maurice's Balkan campaigns were a series of military expeditions conducted by Eastern Roman Emperor Maurice (reigned 582–602) in an attempt to defend the Balkan provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Avars and the Slavs.
Maurice campaigned extensively in the Balkans against the Avars – pushing them back across the Danube by 599.

Comentiolus

A Roman embassy met the Avars near Anchialus, but negotiations broke down after the Avar Chagan threatened further conquests, provoking an irate response out of Comentiolus, one of the Roman ambassadors.
582 – 602)). He played a major role in Maurice's Balkan campaigns, and fought also in the East against the Sassanid Persians.

Viminacium

Viminatium
The Avars quickly moved east and captured Viminacium and Augustae, and they began attacking as far southeast as Anchialus after only three months of war.
During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Viminacium saw destruction by the Avars in 582 and a crushing defeat of Avar forces on the northern Danube bank in 599, destroying Avar reputation for invincibility.

Priscus (general)

Priscus
The following year, Priscus took over from Comentiolus.
Under Maurice, he distinguished himself in the campaigns against the Avars and their Slavic allies in the Balkans.

Constanța

ConstanţaConstantaTomis
At Tomis, on the shores of the Black Sea, the Khagan escaped via the lagoon-shaped coast, but an ambush on the south slope of the Balkan Mountains was thwarted by miscommunication among the Roman troops:
During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Tomis was besieged by the Avars in the winter of 597/598.

Strategikon of Maurice

StrategikonStrategiconStrategicon of Maurice
Under the leadership of Comentiolus, the outnumbered Roman Army avoided any direct confrontation and restricted itself to disturbing the Avar raids by skirmishes and night attacks, a tactical expedient that was advised by Maurice's Strategikon.
If it was written in the 6th century, the Strategikon may have been produced to codify the experience of the Balkan and Persian campaigns, or the campaigns may have been carried out in compliance with the manual.

Pomorie

AnchialosAnchialusAnhialo
The Avars quickly moved east and captured Viminacium and Augustae, and they began attacking as far southeast as Anchialus after only three months of war.
At the eve of his campaigns, the emperor Maurice visited the city to oversee reconstruction.

Singidunum

SingidūnAntic SingidunumSingidon
The renewed Avar invasion began in 583 with the capture of Singidunum after stiff resistance.
During Maurice's Balkan campaigns, Singidunum served as a base of operations, but it was lost again in the early half of the 7th century when the Avars sacked and burned Singidunum to the ground.

Roman–Persian Wars

Roman-Persian WarsRoman-Sassanid WarsRoman–Persian War
As Maurice's forces were tied down in a war against the Persians caused by Justin II, (see Roman-Persian Wars for details), he could muster only a small army against the Avars and Slavs who were marauding in the Balkans.
In 602 the Roman army campaigning in the Balkans mutinied under the leadership of Phocas, who succeeded in seizing the throne and then killed Maurice and his family.

Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine–Sasanian War
The new Roman emperor, Phocas (602–610), would have to fight against the Persians once more: the eastern enemy occupied Armenia in the first phase of the new war.
Emperor Maurice then began new campaigns in the Balkans to stop incursions by the Slavs and Avars.

Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591

Byzantine–Sassanid WarByzantine–Sassanid War of 572–591ongoing war
To make matters worse, Justin II started the Roman-Persian War of 572–591, which tied down forces in the east while they were needed in the Balkans.
Emperor Maurice was even in a position to overcome his predecessor's omissions in the Balkans by extensive campaigns.

Svishtov

SistovaSistowNovae
Despite initially failing, Peter maintained his position, defeated the Slavs (Priscus speaks about Bulgars) at Marcianopolis and patrolled the Danube between Novae (modern Svishtov) and the Black Sea.
Novae served as a base of operations for Roman campaigns against Barbarian tribes including Trajan's Dacian Wars, and the last time during Maurice's Balkan campaigns.

Peter (curopalates)

PeterPeter AugustusPetrus Augustus
In 594, Maurice disposed of Priscus and replaced him by his own rather inexperienced brother Peter.
Together with Priscus and Comentiolus, he was one of the three commanders-in-chief during Maurice's Balkan campaigns.

Heraclius

Emperor HeracliusHeraclius IHeraclius the Younger
On the contrary, there is evidence that refugees from Dardania, Dacia and Pannonia sought protection in Thessalonica only under his successor, Heraclius (610–641).
During his Balkan Campaigns, Emperor Maurice and his family were murdered by Phocas in November 602 after a mutiny.

Novae

Despite initially failing, Peter maintained his position, defeated the Slavs (Priscus speaks about Bulgars) at Marcianopolis and patrolled the Danube between Novae (modern Svishtov) and the Black Sea. It is unknown when a certain area was subdued by Slavic tribes but some events clearly stand out: the destruction of Novae after 613, the conquest of Naissus and Serdica and the destruction of Justiniana Prima in 615; three sieges of Thessalonica (c.604, 615 and 617); the battle of Heraclea Perinthus, on the shores of the Marmara Sea in 619; Slavic raids on Crete in 623 and the siege of Constantinople in 626.
Novae served as a base of operations for Roman campaigns against Barbarian tribes including Trajan's Dacian Wars, and the last time during Maurice's Balkan campaigns.

Philippicus (general)

PhilippicusPhilippikos
Comentiolus was temporarily relieved of his command and replaced by Philippicus, and Maurice summoned the Circus factions and his own bodyguards to defend the long walls west of Constantinople.
In 598, he was briefly appointed general in the ongoing war in the Balkans, and is credited by some sources with a victory over the Avars in Thrace, although this is most likely due to a confusion with general Priscus.

Avar–Byzantine wars

Avars, Byzantine wars with the
This happened during the 580s and 590s, where Byzantium was initially distracted in the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591, but then followed up by a series of successful campaigns that pushed the Avars back.

Asia Minor Slavs

Slavsrelocated to Asia Minorresettled
* Asia Minor Slavs
After Maurice's Balkan campaigns (582–602 CE), and subsequent subduing of Slavs in the Balkans during the 7th and 8th centuries, large communities were forcefully relocated to Asia Minor as military, fighting the Umayyad Caliphate.

Siege of Thessalonica (617)

617unsuccessful siege617/618
It is unknown when a certain area was subdued by Slavic tribes but some events clearly stand out: the destruction of Novae after 613, the conquest of Naissus and Serdica and the destruction of Justiniana Prima in 615; three sieges of Thessalonica (c.604, 615 and 617); the battle of Heraclea Perinthus, on the shores of the Marmara Sea in 619; Slavic raids on Crete in 623 and the siege of Constantinople in 626.
After peace had been won with the Persians in the East in 591, Byzantine emperor Maurice and his generals were able to drive back the Slavs and the Avars in a series of campaigns.

Musokios

MusociusMusokios/Musocius
Musokios or Mužok was a 6th-century (Antes) monarch that ruled around 592, during Maurice's Balkan campaigns.

Battles of Viminacium

open battleAfter being defeatedcrushing defeat
On the north bank, they defeated the Avars in open battle in their own homeland.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
Maurice's Balkan campaigns were a series of military expeditions conducted by Eastern Roman Emperor Maurice (reigned 582–602) in an attempt to defend the Balkan provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Avars and the Slavs.
By 602, a series of successful Byzantine campaigns had pushed the Avars and Slavs back across the Danube.

Sclaveni

SclaviniaeSklavenoiSclavenes
Several decades were to pass before Constantinople could regain the initiative and reconquer parts of the Slav-controlled areas (Sklavinia).
However he was deposed after a military revolt in 602, and the Danubian frontier collapsed one and a half decades later (see Maurice's Balkan campaigns).

Pannonian Avars

AvarsAvarAvar Khaganate
Maurice's Balkan campaigns were a series of military expeditions conducted by Eastern Roman Emperor Maurice (reigned 582–602) in an attempt to defend the Balkan provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Avars and the Slavs.
They suffered setbacks, however, during Maurice's Balkan campaigns in the 590s.

Bayan I

BayanBaian
A few months before Maurice's accession in the winter of 581/2, the Avar Khagan Bayan, aided by Slavic auxiliary troops, took Sirmium, a large fortified settlement south of the Danube.
By 592 the Byzantine ruler, once he defeated the Persian menace, was bent on revenge and counterattacked in full force, soon reverting the roles (see Maurice's Balkan campaigns).