Mauritania

🇲🇷MauritaneanMauritanianIslamic Republic of MauritaniaMRMRT Mauritania coup in 2005MauretaniaMauritania.
Mauritania is a country in Northwest Africa.wikipedia
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Senegal

🇸🇳SENSenegalese
It is the eleventh largest sovereign state in Africa and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.
Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, and Guinea-Bissau to the southwest.

Algeria

🇩🇿AlgerianPeople's Democratic Republic of Algeria
It is the eleventh largest sovereign state in Africa and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest. The country derives its name from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, which existed from the 3rd century BCE into the 7th century CE in the far north of modern-day Morocco and Algeria.
Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea.

Berbers

BerberAmazighBerber tribes
The country derives its name from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, which existed from the 3rd century BCE into the 7th century CE in the far north of modern-day Morocco and Algeria.
Berbers, or Amazighs (Berber languages: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ, Imaziɣen; singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ, Amaziɣ), are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya and a part of western Egypt.

2008 Mauritanian coup d'état

military coup d'étatcoup d'étatmilitary coup
The government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz.
A coup d'état took place in Mauritania on August 6, 2008, when Mauritanian President Sidi Mohamed Ould Cheikh Abdallahi was ousted from power by a group of high-ranking generals he had dismissed from office earlier that day.

Nouakchott

capital of MauritaniahistoryNouakchott, Mauritania
The capital and largest city is Nouakchott, located on the Atlantic coast, which is home to around one-third of the country's million people.
Nouakchott (نواكشوط; Berber: Nwakcoṭ, originally derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ, "place of the winds") is the capital and largest city of Mauritania.

Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz

Abdel AzizAzizOuld Abdel Aziz
The government was overthrown on 6 August 2008, in a military coup d'état led by General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz.
Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz (محمد ولد عبد العزيز Muḥammad Wald ‘Abd al-‘Azīz; born 20 December 1956) is a Mauritanian politician who is currently the President of Mauritania, in office since 2009.

Morocco

🇲🇦MoroccanMAR
The country derives its name from the ancient Berber kingdom of Mauretania, which existed from the 3rd century BCE into the 7th century CE in the far north of modern-day Morocco and Algeria.
After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces.

Wolof language

WolofwolClassical Wolof
Mauritania ((موريتانيا, ', Mauritanie) is officially known as the Islamic Republic of Mauritania'. In other languages, it is known variously as Agawej or Cengiṭ (Berber), Gànnaar (Wolof), Murutaane (Soninke), and Moritani'' (Pulaar).
Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.

Ghana Empire

Wagadou (Ghana Empire)Ghanaancient Ghana
In 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks (Almoravid or Al Murabitun) attacked and conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire.
undefined 1240), properly known as Wagadou (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was a West African empire located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.

Bafour

Bafour people
The Bafours were primarily agricultural, and among the first Saharan people to abandon their historically nomadic lifestyle.
The Bafour or Bafur are a group of people inhabiting Mauritania and Western Sahara.

Char Bouba war

Char Bouba Uprisingfinal warsjihad
The Char Bouba war (1644–74) was the unsuccessful final effort of the peoples to repel the Yemeni Maqil Arab invaders.
The Char Bouba war (variously transliterated as Sharr Bubba, Shar Buba, etc.), or the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War, took place between 1644-74 in the tribal areas of what is today Mauritania and Western Sahara.

Western Sahara

🇪🇭SahrawiEH
It is the eleventh largest sovereign state in Africa and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.
Western Sahara is located on the northwest coast in West Africa and on the cusp of North Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean to the northwest, Morocco proper to the north-northeast, Algeria to the east-northeast, and Mauritania to the east and south.

Emirate of Trarza

TrarzaEmir of Trarza Trarza
Trarza, Brakna and Tagant were occupied by the French armies in 1903–04, but the northern emirate of Adrar held out longer, aided by the anti-colonial rebellion (or jihad) of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn, as well by insurgents from Tagant and the other regions.
The Emirate of Trarza was a precolonial state in what is today southwest Mauritania.

Almoravid dynasty

AlmoravidsAlmoravidAlmoravid Empire
In 1076, Moorish Islamic warrior monks (Almoravid or Al Murabitun) attacked and conquered the large area of the ancient Ghana Empire.
Ibn Zallu sent his student Abdallah ibn Yasin to preach Malikite Islam to the Sanhaja Berbers of the Sous and Adrar (present-day Mauritania).

Mali

🇲🇱MLIMalian
It is the eleventh largest sovereign state in Africa and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Western Sahara to the north and northwest, Algeria to the northeast, Mali to the east and southeast, and Senegal to the southwest.
Mali borders Algeria to the north-northeast, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast to the south, Guinea to the southwest, and Senegal and Mauritania to the west.

Hassane

upper stratum
The descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum of Moorish society.
The Hassane is a name for the traditionally dominant warrior tribes of the Sahrawi-Moorish areas of present-day Mauritania, southern Morocco and Western Sahara.

Ma al-'Aynayn

Fadelliyya
Trarza, Brakna and Tagant were occupied by the French armies in 1903–04, but the northern emirate of Adrar held out longer, aided by the anti-colonial rebellion (or jihad) of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn, as well by insurgents from Tagant and the other regions.
Mohamed Mustafa Ma al-'Aynayn (c. 1830–31 in Oualata, present-day Mauritania – 1910 in Tiznit, Morocco; complete name Mohamad Mustafa ben Mohamad Fadel Maa al-'Aynayn ash-Shanguiti محمد مصطفى بن محمد فاضل ماء العينين الشنكيطي) was a Saharan Moorish religious and political leader who fought French and Spanish colonization in North Africa.

French West Africa

FrenchFrench colonial ruleWest Africa
Mauritania was part of French West Africa from 1920, as a protectorate and, then, a colony.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.

Sub-Saharan Africa

sub-Saharansub-Saharan Africansub-Sahara
After gaining independence, larger numbers of indigenous Sub-Saharan African peoples (Haalpulaar, Soninke, and Wolof) entered Mauritania, moving into the area north of the Senegal River.
The states of Somalia, Djibouti, Comoros and the Arabic speaking Mauritania are however geographically in Sub-Saharan Africa, although they are members of the Arab League as well.

Xavier Coppolani

In 1901, Xavier Coppolani took charge of the imperial mission.
Xavier Coppolani (1866-1905), was a French military and colonial leader, who was instrumental in the colonial occupation and creation of modern-day Mauritania.

Tagant Region

Tagant Tagant
Trarza, Brakna and Tagant were occupied by the French armies in 1903–04, but the northern emirate of Adrar held out longer, aided by the anti-colonial rebellion (or jihad) of shaykh Maa al-Aynayn, as well by insurgents from Tagant and the other regions.
Tagant is a region in south-central Mauritania named for the Tagant Plateau.

Fula people

FulaFulaniFulbe
After gaining independence, larger numbers of indigenous Sub-Saharan African peoples (Haalpulaar, Soninke, and Wolof) entered Mauritania, moving into the area north of the Senegal River.
The countries where they are present include Mauritania, Ghana, Senegal, Guinea, the Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Niger, Chad, Togo, South Sudan the Central African Republic, Liberia, and as far east as the Red Sea in Sudan and Egypt.

Soninke language

SoninkeSoninkéAzer
Mauritania ((موريتانيا, ', Mauritanie) is officially known as the Islamic Republic of Mauritania'. In other languages, it is known variously as Agawej or Cengiṭ (Berber), Gànnaar (Wolof), Murutaane (Soninke), and Moritani'' (Pulaar).
The language has an estimated 1,096,795 speakers, primarily located in Mali, and also (in order of numerical importance of the communities) in Senegal, Ivory Coast, The Gambia, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Ghana.

Saint-Louis, Senegal

Saint-LouisSaint LouisSt-Louis
The previous capital of the country under the French rule, Saint-Louis, was located in Senegal, so when the country gained independence in 1960, Nouakchott, at the time little more than a fortified village ("ksar"), was chosen as the site of the new capital of Mauritania.
From 1920 to 1957, it also served as the capital of the neighboring colony of Mauritania.

Moors

MoorishMoorMuslim
The descendants of the Beni Hassan warriors became the upper stratum of Moorish society.
They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Tunisia, Morocco, Niger, and Mali.